Ionizing radiation (IR) causes DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and activates a versatile cellular response regulating DNA repair, cell-cycle progression, transcription, DNA replication and other processes. In recent years proteomics has emerged as a powerful tool deepening our understanding of this multifaceted response. In this study we use SILAC-based proteomics to specifically investigate dynamic changes in cytoplasmic protein abundance after ionizing radiation; we present in-depth bioinformatics analysis and show that levels of proteins involved in autophagy (cathepsins and other lysosomal proteins), proteasomal degradation (Ubiquitin-related proteins), energy metabolism (mitochondrial proteins) and particularly translation (ribosomal proteins and translation factors) are regulated after cellular exposure to ionizing radiation. Downregulation of no less than 68 ribosomal proteins shows rapid changes in the translation pattern after IR. Additionally, we provide evidence of compartmental cytosol-nuclear translocation of numerous DNA damage related proteins using protein correlation profiling. In conclusion, these results highlight unexpected cytoplasmic processes actively orchestrated after genotoxic insults and protein translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus as a fundamental regulatory mechanism employed to aid cell survival and preservation of genome integrity.