Dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes from antibiotic producers to pathogens

Xinglin Jiang, Mostafa M Hashim Ellabaan, Pep Charusanti, Christian Munck, Kai Blin, Yaojun Tong, Tilmann Weber, Morten Otto Alexander Sommer, Sang Yup Lee

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It has been hypothesized that some antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) found in pathogenic bacteria derive from antibiotic-producing actinobacteria. Here we provide bioinformatic and experimental evidence supporting this hypothesis. We identify genes in proteobacteria, including some pathogens, that appear to be closely related to actinobacterial ARGs known to confer resistance against clinically important antibiotics. Furthermore, we identify two potential examples of recent horizontal transfer of actinobacterial ARGs to proteobacterial pathogens. Based on this bioinformatic evidence, we propose and experimentally test a 'carry-back' mechanism for the transfer, involving conjugative transfer of a carrier sequence from proteobacteria to actinobacteria, recombination of the carrier sequence with the actinobacterial ARG, followed by natural transformation of proteobacteria with the carrier-sandwiched ARG. Our results support the existence of ancient and, possibly, recent transfers of ARGs from antibiotic-producing actinobacteria to proteobacteria, and provide evidence for a defined mechanism.
Original languageEnglish
Article number15784
JournalNature Communications
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Bibliographical note

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


  • Antibiotics
  • Bacterial evolution
  • Bacterial genetics
  • Evolutionary genetics


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