Efficient simulations of the dynamics of open systems is of wide importance for quantum science and technology. Here, we introduce a generalization of the transfer-tensor, or discrete-time memory kernel, formalism to multitime measurement scenarios. The transfer-tensor method sets out to compute the state of an open few-body quantum system at long times, given that only short-time system trajectories are available. Here, we show that the transfer-tensor method can be extended to processes which include multiple interrogations (e.g., measurements) of the open system dynamics as it evolves, allowing us to propagate high-order short-time correlation functions to later times, without further recourse to the underlying system-environment evolution. Our approach exploits the process-tensor description of open quantum processes to represent and propagate the dynamics in terms of an object from which any multitime correlation can be extracted. As an illustration of the utility of the method, we study the buildup of system-environment correlations in the paradigmatic spin-boson model and compute steady-state emission spectra, taking fully into account system-environment correlations present in the steady state.