The baculovirus expression system was found to be efficient at expressing the 3D, the 3AB and the 3ABC non-structural proteins (NSP) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) as antigens recognised by immune sera in ELISA. ELISA's using 3D, 3AB and 3ABC detected antibodies from day 8 and 10 after experimental infection of susceptible cattle and sheep and cattle remained seropositive for more than 395 days. The ELISA's detected antibodies against any of the seven serotypes of FMDV. The 3D ELISA was specific and precise and as sensitive as established ELISA's which measure antibody to structural proteins. The assay may be used as a resource saving alternative to established ELISA's for the detection of antibodies against any of the seven serotypes. The 3AB and the 3ABC ELISA were also specific and precise. FMDV infected cattle could be differentiated from those that had been merely vaccinated as they gave a positive result in both the 3AB and the 3ABC ELISA's. Two cattle that had been both vaccinated and infected also gave, positive results in both tests, suggesting that the 3AB and 3ABC ELISA's, but not the 3D ELISA might represent a reliable means of detecting infection in a vaccinated population.
Sørensen, K. J., Madsen, K. G., Madsen, E. S., Salt, J. S., Nqindi, J., & Mackay, D. K. J. (1998). Differentiation of infection from vaccination in foot-and-mouth disease by the detection of antibodies to the non-structural proteins 3D, 3AB and 3ABC in ELISA using antigens expressed in baculovirus. Archives of Virology, 143(8), 1461-1476. https://doi.org/10.1007/s007050050390