Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)-based genetic profiling for taxonomic and epidemiological analyses of diverse Arcobacter species. Methods and Results: Seventy-two isolates of A. butzleri, A. cryaerophilus, A. skirrowii and A. nitrofigilis, and a previously unclassified porcine abortion strain were studied. AFLP profiling was performed using a BglII-Csp6I-based protocol previously used to characterize Campylobacter species. Duplicate profiles of 20 isolates were 93.25% similar, indicating high reproducibility. Numerical analysis of all 72 strains revealed five phenons at the 29% similarity level, four of which represented each of the known species studied. The remaining phenon was further characterized by phenotypic and 16S rDNA sequence analyses, the results of which indicated it to be a novel Arcobacter species. The genetically distinct subgroups of A. cryaerophilus were differentiated at the 39.5% similarity level. For strain typing, 62 distinct types were defined, with evidence of clonal lineages within A. butzleri, A. cryaerophilus and A. skirrowii. Conclusions: AFLP profiling is an effective means of determining taxonomic and strain relationships for arcobacters. Significance and Impact of the Study: First use of AFLP profiling for diverse Arcobacter species; indication of clonality in A. butzleri, A. cryaerophilus and A. skirrowii; potentially novel Arcobacter taxon identified.