Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference

Marianne Uhre Jakobsen, Lise Madsen, Flemming Skjøth, Tina L. Berentzen, Jytte Halkjaer, Anne Tjonneland, Erik B. Schmidt, Thorkild I. A. Sorensen, Karsten Kristiansen, Kim Overvad

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Background: Adding long-chain n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to a rodent diet reduces fat mass and prevents the development of obesity, but evidence of a similar effect in humans is rather limited.Objectives: We investigated the associations between dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference in humans. Effect modification by the carbohydrate: protein ratio and glycemic index was also investigated.Design: A total of 29,152 participants included in the Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort were followed. Dietary intake was assessed with the use of a validated 192-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Adipose tissue content of fatty acids was determined by gas chromatography in a random sample of the cohort (n = 1660). Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and 5 y later. Associations were investigated with the use of a linear regression model.Results: For high (1.22 g/d) compared with low (0.28 g/d) total n-3 PUFA intake, the difference in 5-y weight change was 147.6 g (95% CI: -42.3, 337.5 g); P-trend = 0.088. No associations between the individual n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid were observed. Intake of n-3 PUFAs was not associated with a 5-y change in waist circumference. For high (0.16%) compared with low (0.06%) adipose tissue content of EPA, the difference in 5-y weight change was -649.6 g (95% CI: -1254.2, -44.9 g); P-trend = 0.027. No associations between total n-3 PUFA, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid and 5-y weight change were observed. Adipose tissue content of n-3 PUFAs was not associated with 5-y change in waist circumference. No effect modification by carbohydrate: protein ratio or glycemic index was found.Conclusion: Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs were neither consistently nor appreciably associated with change in body weight or waist circumference.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
Volume105
Issue number5
Pages (from-to)1148-1157
Number of pages10
ISSN0002-9165
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Adipose tissue
  • Carbohydrates
  • Cohort study
  • Dietary intake
  • Follow-up study
  • Obesity
  • Omega-3 fatty acids
  • Proteins

Cite this

Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre ; Madsen, Lise ; Skjøth, Flemming ; Berentzen, Tina L. ; Halkjaer, Jytte ; Tjonneland, Anne ; Schmidt, Erik B. ; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A. ; Kristiansen, Karsten ; Overvad, Kim. / Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference. In: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION. 2017 ; Vol. 105, No. 5. pp. 1148-1157.
@article{e44a4a01c18a42949fd8fbbaac38face,
title = "Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference",
abstract = "Background: Adding long-chain n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to a rodent diet reduces fat mass and prevents the development of obesity, but evidence of a similar effect in humans is rather limited.Objectives: We investigated the associations between dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference in humans. Effect modification by the carbohydrate: protein ratio and glycemic index was also investigated.Design: A total of 29,152 participants included in the Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort were followed. Dietary intake was assessed with the use of a validated 192-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Adipose tissue content of fatty acids was determined by gas chromatography in a random sample of the cohort (n = 1660). Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and 5 y later. Associations were investigated with the use of a linear regression model.Results: For high (1.22 g/d) compared with low (0.28 g/d) total n-3 PUFA intake, the difference in 5-y weight change was 147.6 g (95{\%} CI: -42.3, 337.5 g); P-trend = 0.088. No associations between the individual n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid were observed. Intake of n-3 PUFAs was not associated with a 5-y change in waist circumference. For high (0.16{\%}) compared with low (0.06{\%}) adipose tissue content of EPA, the difference in 5-y weight change was -649.6 g (95{\%} CI: -1254.2, -44.9 g); P-trend = 0.027. No associations between total n-3 PUFA, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid and 5-y weight change were observed. Adipose tissue content of n-3 PUFAs was not associated with 5-y change in waist circumference. No effect modification by carbohydrate: protein ratio or glycemic index was found.Conclusion: Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs were neither consistently nor appreciably associated with change in body weight or waist circumference.",
keywords = "Adipose tissue, Carbohydrates, Cohort study, Dietary intake, Follow-up study, Obesity, Omega-3 fatty acids, Proteins",
author = "Jakobsen, {Marianne Uhre} and Lise Madsen and Flemming Skj{\o}th and Berentzen, {Tina L.} and Jytte Halkjaer and Anne Tjonneland and Schmidt, {Erik B.} and Sorensen, {Thorkild I. A.} and Karsten Kristiansen and Kim Overvad",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.3945/ajcn.116.140079",
language = "English",
volume = "105",
pages = "1148--1157",
journal = "American Journal of Clinical Nutrition",
issn = "0002-9165",
publisher = "American Society for Nutrition",
number = "5",

}

Jakobsen, MU, Madsen, L, Skjøth, F, Berentzen, TL, Halkjaer, J, Tjonneland, A, Schmidt, EB, Sorensen, TIA, Kristiansen, K & Overvad, K 2017, 'Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference', AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, vol. 105, no. 5, pp. 1148-1157. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.116.140079

Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference. / Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Madsen, Lise; Skjøth, Flemming; Berentzen, Tina L.; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjonneland, Anne; Schmidt, Erik B.; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Kristiansen, Karsten; Overvad, Kim.

In: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, Vol. 105, No. 5, 2017, p. 1148-1157.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference

AU - Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

AU - Madsen, Lise

AU - Skjøth, Flemming

AU - Berentzen, Tina L.

AU - Halkjaer, Jytte

AU - Tjonneland, Anne

AU - Schmidt, Erik B.

AU - Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.

AU - Kristiansen, Karsten

AU - Overvad, Kim

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Background: Adding long-chain n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to a rodent diet reduces fat mass and prevents the development of obesity, but evidence of a similar effect in humans is rather limited.Objectives: We investigated the associations between dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference in humans. Effect modification by the carbohydrate: protein ratio and glycemic index was also investigated.Design: A total of 29,152 participants included in the Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort were followed. Dietary intake was assessed with the use of a validated 192-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Adipose tissue content of fatty acids was determined by gas chromatography in a random sample of the cohort (n = 1660). Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and 5 y later. Associations were investigated with the use of a linear regression model.Results: For high (1.22 g/d) compared with low (0.28 g/d) total n-3 PUFA intake, the difference in 5-y weight change was 147.6 g (95% CI: -42.3, 337.5 g); P-trend = 0.088. No associations between the individual n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid were observed. Intake of n-3 PUFAs was not associated with a 5-y change in waist circumference. For high (0.16%) compared with low (0.06%) adipose tissue content of EPA, the difference in 5-y weight change was -649.6 g (95% CI: -1254.2, -44.9 g); P-trend = 0.027. No associations between total n-3 PUFA, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid and 5-y weight change were observed. Adipose tissue content of n-3 PUFAs was not associated with 5-y change in waist circumference. No effect modification by carbohydrate: protein ratio or glycemic index was found.Conclusion: Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs were neither consistently nor appreciably associated with change in body weight or waist circumference.

AB - Background: Adding long-chain n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to a rodent diet reduces fat mass and prevents the development of obesity, but evidence of a similar effect in humans is rather limited.Objectives: We investigated the associations between dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference in humans. Effect modification by the carbohydrate: protein ratio and glycemic index was also investigated.Design: A total of 29,152 participants included in the Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort were followed. Dietary intake was assessed with the use of a validated 192-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Adipose tissue content of fatty acids was determined by gas chromatography in a random sample of the cohort (n = 1660). Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and 5 y later. Associations were investigated with the use of a linear regression model.Results: For high (1.22 g/d) compared with low (0.28 g/d) total n-3 PUFA intake, the difference in 5-y weight change was 147.6 g (95% CI: -42.3, 337.5 g); P-trend = 0.088. No associations between the individual n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid were observed. Intake of n-3 PUFAs was not associated with a 5-y change in waist circumference. For high (0.16%) compared with low (0.06%) adipose tissue content of EPA, the difference in 5-y weight change was -649.6 g (95% CI: -1254.2, -44.9 g); P-trend = 0.027. No associations between total n-3 PUFA, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid and 5-y weight change were observed. Adipose tissue content of n-3 PUFAs was not associated with 5-y change in waist circumference. No effect modification by carbohydrate: protein ratio or glycemic index was found.Conclusion: Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs were neither consistently nor appreciably associated with change in body weight or waist circumference.

KW - Adipose tissue

KW - Carbohydrates

KW - Cohort study

KW - Dietary intake

KW - Follow-up study

KW - Obesity

KW - Omega-3 fatty acids

KW - Proteins

U2 - 10.3945/ajcn.116.140079

DO - 10.3945/ajcn.116.140079

M3 - Journal article

VL - 105

SP - 1148

EP - 1157

JO - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

JF - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

SN - 0002-9165

IS - 5

ER -