Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference

Marianne Uhre Jakobsen, Lise Madsen, Flemming Skjøth, Tina L. Berentzen, Jytte Halkjaer, Anne Tjonneland, Erik B. Schmidt, Thorkild I. A. Sorensen, Karsten Kristiansen, Kim Overvad

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Background: Adding long-chain n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to a rodent diet reduces fat mass and prevents the development of obesity, but evidence of a similar effect in humans is rather limited.Objectives: We investigated the associations between dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference in humans. Effect modification by the carbohydrate: protein ratio and glycemic index was also investigated.Design: A total of 29,152 participants included in the Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort were followed. Dietary intake was assessed with the use of a validated 192-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Adipose tissue content of fatty acids was determined by gas chromatography in a random sample of the cohort (n = 1660). Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and 5 y later. Associations were investigated with the use of a linear regression model.Results: For high (1.22 g/d) compared with low (0.28 g/d) total n-3 PUFA intake, the difference in 5-y weight change was 147.6 g (95% CI: -42.3, 337.5 g); P-trend = 0.088. No associations between the individual n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid were observed. Intake of n-3 PUFAs was not associated with a 5-y change in waist circumference. For high (0.16%) compared with low (0.06%) adipose tissue content of EPA, the difference in 5-y weight change was -649.6 g (95% CI: -1254.2, -44.9 g); P-trend = 0.027. No associations between total n-3 PUFA, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid and 5-y weight change were observed. Adipose tissue content of n-3 PUFAs was not associated with 5-y change in waist circumference. No effect modification by carbohydrate: protein ratio or glycemic index was found.Conclusion: Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs were neither consistently nor appreciably associated with change in body weight or waist circumference.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
Volume105
Issue number5
Pages (from-to)1148-1157
Number of pages10
ISSN0002-9165
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Adipose tissue
  • Carbohydrates
  • Cohort study
  • Dietary intake
  • Follow-up study
  • Obesity
  • Omega-3 fatty acids
  • Proteins

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