Dietary Determinants of Changes in Waist Circumference Adjusted for Body Mass Index - a Proxy Measure of Visceral Adiposity

Dora Romaguera, Lars Aengquist, Huaidong Du, Marianne Uhre Jakobsen, Nita G. Forouhi, Jytte Halkjaer, Edith J. M. Feskens, Daphne L. van der A, Giovanna Masala, Annika Steffen, Domenico Palli, Nicholas J. Wareham, Kim Overvad, Anne Tjonneland, Heiner Boeing, Elio Riboli, Thorkild I. A. Sorensen

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Abstract

Background: Given the recognized health effects of visceral fat, the understanding of how diet can modulate changes in the phenotype "waist circumference for a given body mass index (WCBMI)'', a proxy measure of visceral adiposity, is deemed necessary. Hence, the objective of the present study was to assess the association between dietary factors and prospective changes in visceral adiposity as measured by changes in the phenotype WCBMI. Methods and Findings: We analyzed data from 48,631 men and women from 5 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Anthropometric measurements were obtained at baseline and after a median follow-up time of 5.5 years. WCBMI was defined as the residuals of waist circumference regressed on body mass index, and annual change in WCBMI (Delta WCBMI, cm/y) was defined as the difference between residuals at follow-up and baseline, divided by follow-up time. The association between energy, energy density (ED), macronutrients, alcohol, glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), fibre and Delta WCBMI was modelled using centre-specific adjusted linear regression, and random-effects meta-analyses to obtain pooled estimates. Men and women with higher ED and GI diets showed significant increases in their WCBMI, compared to those with lower ED and GI [1 kcal/g greater ED predicted a Delta WCBMI of 0.09 cm (95% CI 0.05 to 0.13) in men and 0.15 cm (95% CI 0.09 to 0.21) in women; 10 units greater GI predicted a Delta WCBMI of 0.07 cm (95% CI 0.03 to 0.12) in men and 0.06 cm (95% CI 0.03 to 0.10) in women]. Among women, lower fibre intake, higher GL, and higher alcohol consumption also predicted a higher Delta WCBMI. Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that a diet with low GI and ED may prevent visceral adiposity, defined as the prospective changes in WCBMI. Additional effects may be obtained among women of low alcohol, low GL, and high fibre intake.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere11588
JournalP L o S One
Volume5
Issue number7
Number of pages7
ISSN1932-6203
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Copyright 2010 Romaguera et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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