Acrylamide (AA) is a probable human carcinogen that is formed in heat-treated carbohydrate-rich foods. The validity of FFQ to assess AA exposure has been questioned. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate dietary determinants of Hb-AA and Hb-glycidamide (GA) adducts. The study included 537 non-smoking women aged 50–65 years who participated in the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort (1993–97). At study baseline, blood samples and information on dietary and lifestyle variables obtained from self-administered questionnaires were collected. From blood samples, Hb-AA and Hb-GA in erythrocytes were analysed by liquid chromatography/MS/MS. Dietary determinants were evaluated by multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for age and smoking behaviour among ex-smokers. The median for Hb-AA was 35 pmol/g globin (5th percentile 17, 95th percentile 89) and for Hb-GA 21 pmol/g globin (5th percentile 8, 95th percentile 49). Of the dietary factors studied, intakes of coffee and chips were statistically significantly associated with a 4 % per 200 g/d (95 % CI 2, 7; P <0·0001) and an 18 % per 5 g/d (95 % CI 6, 31; P = 0·002) higher Hb-AA, respectively. This model explained 17 % of the variation in Hb-AA. Intakes of coffee and biscuits/crackers were statistically significantly associated with a 3 % per 200 g/d (95 % CI 1, 6; P = 0·005) and 12 % per 10 g/d (95 % CI 3, 23; P = 0·01) higher Hb-GA, respectively. This model explained 12 % of the variation in Hb-GA. In conclusion, only a few dietary determinants of Hb-AA and Hb-GA were identified. Thus, the present study implies that dietary intake measured by an FFQ explains only to a limited extent the variation in Hb-AA and Hb-GA concentrations.