The implementation of diagnostic systems on ITER is a substantial challenge. Because of the harsh environment (high levels of neutron and gamma fluxes, neutron heating, particle bombardment) diagnostic system selection and design has to cope with a range of phenomena not previously encountered in diagnostic design. Extensive design and R&D is needed to prepare the systems. In some cases the environmental difficulties are so severe that new diagnostic techniques are required.
The starting point in the development of diagnostics for ITER is to define the measurement requirements and develop their justification. It is necessary to include all the plasma parameters needed to support the basic and advanced operation (including active control) of the device, machine protection and also those needed to support the physics programme. Once the requirements are defined, the appropriate (combination of) diagnostic techniques can be selected and their implementation onto the tokamak can be developed. The selected list of diagnostics is an important guideline for identifying dedicated research and development needs in the area of ITER diagnostics.
This paper gives a comprehensive overview of recent progress in the field of ITER diagnostics with emphasis on the implementation issues. After a discussion of the measurement requirements for plasma parameters in ITER and their justifications, recent progress in the field of diagnostics to measure a selected set of plasma parameters is presented. The integration of the various diagnostic systems onto the ITER tokamak is described. Generic research and development in the field of irradiation effects on materials and environmental effects on first mirrors are briefly presented. The paper ends with an assessment of the measurement capability for ITER and a forward of what will be gained from operation of the various diagnostic systems on ITER in preparation for the machines that will follow ITER.