A test was performed to determine the efficacy of a novel multi-channel thermocouple temperature sensor employing "N+1" array architecture for the in-situ detection of icing in cold climates. T-type thermoelements were used to fabricate a sensor with six independent temperature sensing points, capable of two-dimensional temperature mapping. The sensor was intended to detect the high latent heat of fusion of water (334 J/g) which is released to the environment during ice formation. The sensor was embedded on a plywood board and an aluminium plate, respectively by an epoxy resin. Three different ice accretion cases were considered. Ice accretion for all cases was achieved on the surface of the resin layer. In order to analyse the temperature variation for all three cases, the first 20 s response for each case was averaged between three cases. A temperature increase of (1.0 ± 0.1) °C and (0.9 ± 0.1) °C was detected by the sensors 20 s after the onset of icing, attributed to the latent heat of fusion of water. The results indicate that the sensor design is well-suited to cold temperature applications and that detection of the latent heat of fusion could provide a rapid and robust means of icing detection.
- Multi-channel thermocouple array (MCTCA)