Determining the coating speed limitations for organic photovoltaic inks

Florian Jakubka, Madeleine Heyder, Florian Machui, Joachim Kaschta, Daniel Eggerath, Wilfried Lövenich, Frederik C Krebs, Christoph J. Brabec

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


To determine the output capability of present organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials, it is important to know the theoretical maximum coating speeds of the used semiconductor formulations. Here, we present a comprehensive investigation of the coating stability window of several prototype organic semiconductor inks relevant for organic solar cells. The coating stability window was first determined experimentally by a sheet to sheet coater at velocities of up to 10 m/min. A numerical simulation model based on the Coating Window Suite 2010 software was established to give insight into the coating stability limitations at higher coating velocities. An analysis of PEDOT:PSS [poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)] in a water/isopropyl alcohol mixture as well as P3HT:PCBM [poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester] in chlorobenzene, o-xylene and tetrahydronaphthalene showed the possibility of coating speeds up to 60 m/min. The simulation further revealed the maximum coating head distances for a given wet film thickness. Finally, we show a solar-cell with slot-die coated PEDOT:PSS and P3HT:PCBM-layer based on the parameters obtained by the simulated data, which exhibits reasonable performance. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
JournalSolar Energy Materials & Solar Cells
Pages (from-to)120-125
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • Conducting polymers
  • Naphthalene
  • Solar cells
  • Xylene
  • Coatings


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