The classical swine fever (CSF) epidemic in the Netherlands in 1997-1998 lasted 14 months, during which 429 infected and 1300 at risk herds were culled, at an estimated economical cost of 2 billion US dollars. Despite the overwhelming scale of the epizootic, the CSF virus (CSFV) strain causing the outbreak has remained largely uncharacterized. The Dutch epizootic is epidemiologically linked to a small CSF outbreak in 1997, in Paderborn in Germany. E2 and partial 5' NTR sequencing has shown that the index Paderborn isolate, and several Dutch isolates taken during the 1997-1998 epizootic, are virtually identical, confirming that the Paderborn isolate triggered the Dutch outbreak, and furthermore showing that this single isolate was stable throughout the whole Dutch outbreak (the above reviewed in [C. Terpstra, A. J. de Smit, Veterinary Microbiol. 77 (2000) 3-15]). We determined the nucleotide sequence of the 5' NTR (by 5' RACE) and the complete open reading frame of the Paderborn isolate (GenBank AY072924). Our sequence was identical to previously published partial 5'NTR and E2 sequences for the index Paderborn 1997 and Dutch 1997 (Venhorst) isolates, confirming the identity of the virus we sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete open reading frame showed that Paderborn is genetically very different from common European laboratory reference strains. Neutralization studies showed that Paderborn is also antigenically very different from common laboratory strains such as Alfort 187. Paderborn is the only recent European CSFV field isolate for which a complete sequence is available, and given Paderborns genetic and antigenic uniqueness, the Paderborn sequence may have practical use for diagnostic and vaccine antigen development.
- pig virus
- hog cholera
- Paderborn isolate
- classical swine fever virus (CSFV)
- whole genome sequence