Determination of resistance to salt crystallization on natural stone measured with ultrasonic wave

D. Alm, S. Brix, H. Howe Kjærgaard, Kurt Kielsgaard Hansen, B. Grelk

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingArticle in proceedingsResearchpeer-review

Abstract

The use of panels as facade cladding has increased substantially during the last few decades. However, during recent years reports of facade problems have increased dramatically. Facade cladding has, in some cases, suffered from problems with durability such as exfoliation, disintegration of macrostructure and loss of strength. The damage may to some extent be accelerated by salt crystallization. This is an investigation of the durability of stones exposed to salt crystallization, by means of ultrasonic velocity measurements, compressive strength measurements and analysis of thin sections before and after salt exposure. Four different stones are investigated: the limestone Bateig Azul, the sandstone Oberkirchener, the limestone Perlatino, and the limestone Travertine. The procedure for the salt crystallization test is EN 12370 standard “Natural stone test methods – Determination of resistance to salt crystallization”. Furthermore, ultrasonic velocity measurements are performed for each specimen during the salt crystallization test cycles. The ultrasonic velocity decreases from undamaged to damaged stones. The compressive strength also decreases with increasing number of cycles. After 19 cycles Bateig Azul has 1.45 km/s decrease in ultrasonic velocity and 66.3 % decrease in mean compressive strength after only 9 cycles, while Perlatino has 0.80 km/s decrease in ultrasonic velocity and corresponding 2.7 % decrease in mean compressive strength after 19 cycles. Bateig Azul has 18.4 % in open porosity while Perlatino has 1.1 % in open porosity. By means of ultrasonic measurements it is possible to detect damage in stones exposed to salt crystallization cycles. The results show a tendency to less resistance of salt crystallization for more porous materials.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSalt Weathering on Buildings and Stone Sculptures
Number of pages392
Place of PublicationKgs. Lyngby, Denmark
PublisherTechnical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering
Publication date2008
Pages159-167
ISBN (Print)9788778772732
Publication statusPublished - 2008
Event1st International Conference on Salt Weathering on Buildings and Stone Sculptures - The National Museum, Copenhagen, Denmark
Duration: 22 Oct 200824 Oct 2008
Conference number: 1

Conference

Conference1st International Conference on Salt Weathering on Buildings and Stone Sculptures
Number1
LocationThe National Museum
CountryDenmark
CityCopenhagen
Period22/10/200824/10/2008

Keywords

  • Crystallization
  • Durability
  • Thin section
  • Stone
  • Salt
  • Ultrasound

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