Determination of antimicrobial use in commercial poultry farms in Plateau and Oyo States, Nigeria

Mwapu Dika Ndahi*, Rene Hendriksen, Birgitte Helwigh, Roderick M. Card, Idowu Oluwabunmi Fagbamila, Oluwadamilola Olawumi Abiodun-Adewusi, Eme Ekeng, Victoria Adetunji, Ini Adebiyi, Jens Kirk Andersen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Background: Indiscriminate use of antimicrobials for the prevention and treatment of bacterial infection in animals is a common practice in Nigeria as in other developing countries. These antimicrobials are purchased over the counter without restrictions and often administered in form of medicated feedstuffs. In Nigeria, like most developing countries, antimicrobial prescription data are not routinely collected or reported at the farm level, instead import data are used in reporting antimicrobial consumption. Farmers can be useful sources of data on the use of antimicrobial agents by class, animal species, production type and age. The objective of the study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices of poultry farmers on antimicrobial resistance and to generate data on antimicrobial use (AMU) in poultry farms in Plateau and Oyo states in accordance with the guidelines of the World Organization for Animal Health (WOAH).
A questionnaire used by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations in Ghana was adopted and modified to collect data on the knowledge, attitude and practices of farmers on AMR and AMU and to collect AMU data from selected poultry farms. A focus group discussion (FGD) was conducted in Plateau state with poultry farmers and representatives from the state veterinary services, using a checklist. The aim of the FGD was to have an idea on antimicrobial use among poultry farmers and to generate additional questions that might be added to the questionnaire. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 50 farms from Plateau and Oyo states, using the list of registered poultry farms in the two states as sampling frame.
Ninety eight percent (98%) of farmers gave antibiotics as prophylactic treatment to day old chicks. There were 47 different products used in the two states within the study period. We observed that five classes of antibiotics (Tetracyclines, Penicillins, Aminoglycosides, Polypeptides and Fluoroquinolone) were used in the two states. A total of 351 kg of active ingredients from seven different classes, namely: tetracyclines, penicillins, aminoglycosides, polypeptide, fluoroquinolones, amphenicol and macrolides were recorded from the two states. Some products contained cocktail of antibiotics, having up to six different classes with very high concentration of active ingredients which are not in the list of registered antimicrobials reported to WOAH.
Conclusion: The concept used for this survey proved that the approach can be applied for AMU surveillance in the animal health sector. It also provided insight on farmers' knowledge and practices with regards to the use of antimicrobials which is missing in the national import data. The need for "stronger" antibiotics was identified as one of the drivers of antibiotic resistance.
Original languageEnglish
Article number30
JournalAntimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Issue number1
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Antimicrobials
  • Antimicrobial resistance
  • Antimicrobial use
  • Active ingredients
  • Poultry and kobotool


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