Determination of an Optimum Sector Size for Plan Position Indicator Measurements using a Long Range Coherent Scanning Atmospheric Doppler LiDAR.

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As wind energy plants continue to grow in size and complexity, advanced measurement technologies such as scanning Doppler LiDAR are essential for assessing site conditions and prospecting new development areas. The RUNE project was initiated to determine best practices for the use of scanning LiDARs in resource assessments for near shore wind farms. The purpose of this thesis is to determine the optimum configuration for the plan position indicator (PPI) scan type of a scanning LiDAR. A task specific Automated Analysis Software (AAS) is created, and the sensitivity of the integrated velocity azimuth process (iVAP) reconstruction algorithm is examined using sector sizes ranging from 4 to 60 degrees. Further, a comparison to simultaneous dual Doppler measurement is presented in order to determine the necessity of deploying two LiDARs rather than one. DTU has developed a coordinated long range coherent scanning multi-LiDAR array (the WindScanner system) based on modified Leosphere WindCube 200S devices and
an application specific software framework and communication protocol. The long range WindScanner system was deployed at DTU’s test station in Høvsøre, Denmark and measurement data was collected over a period of 7 days. One WindScanner was performing 60 degree sector scans, while two others were placed in staring dual Doppler mode. All three beams were configured to converge atop a 116.5m instrumented meteorological mast. A significant result was discovered which indicates that the accuracy of the reconstructed measurements do not differ significantly between sector sizes of 30 and 60 degrees. Using the smallest sector size which does not introduce systematic error has numerous benefits including: increasing the scan speed, measurement distance and angular resolution. When comparing collocated dual Doppler, sector scan and in-situ met-mast instrumentation, we find very good agreement between all techniques. Dual Doppler is able to measure wind speeds within 0.1%, and 60 degree sector scan within 0.2% on average of the reference values. For retrieval of wind direction, the sector scan approach performs particularly well. This is likely attributable to lower errors introduced by the assumption of flow field homogeneity over the scanned area, in contract to wind direction which tends to be more non-uniform. For applications such as site resource assessments, where generally accurate 10 minute wind speed and
direction values are required, a scanning LiDAR performing PPI scans with a sector size of between 30 and 38 degrees is recommended. The laser’s line of sight path should be directed parallel to the predominant wind direction and at the lowest elevation angle possible.
Original languageEnglish
PublisherUppsala University
Number of pages76
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes


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