Designing P4 - Predictive, Preventive, Personalised and Participative - Healthcare Interventions for Managing Cognitive Decline and Dementia: Where are we at?

François Patou*, Nicholas Ciccone, Julia Rosemary Thorpe, Anja Maier

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


This paper presents a systematic literature review aimed at assessing how well current technology-based interventions that focus on dementia and other cognitive impairments align with the principles of the P4 vision for healthcare: Predictive, Preventive, Personalised and Participative. A search of the SCOPUS database yielded 887 articles, of which 49 were ultimately selected for analysis. Looking at whether and how each intervention implements each “P”-principle, our results suggest a partial and non-systemic embrace of the P4 vision. Reasoning on possible explanations for this state-of-the-art, we propose that our findings represent an opportunity for the engineering design community to engage with P4-based healthcare delivery models through the development of design frameworks, new indicators for assessing the success of such healthcare delivery models, as well as tools and methods.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Engineering Design
Issue number7
Pages (from-to)379-398
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Engineering Design
  • Healthcare Design
  • Healthcare Improvement
  • P4 Healthcare
  • Dementia

Cite this