Designing Non-linear Frequency Modulated Signals For Medical Ultrasound Imaging

Fredrik Gran, Jørgen Arendt Jensen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingArticle in proceedingsResearchpeer-review

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Abstract

In this paper a new method for designing non-linear frequency modulated (NLFM) waveforms for ultrasound imaging is proposed. The objective is to control the amplitude spectrum of the designed waveform and still keep a constant transmit amplitude, so that the transmitted energy is maximized. The signal-to-noise-ratio can in this way be optimized. The waveform design is based on least squares optimization. A desired amplitude spectrum is chosen, hereafter the phase spectrum is chosen, so that the instantaneous frequency takes on the form of a third order polynomial. The finite energy waveform is derived by minimizing the summed squared error between the desired spectrum and the obtained spectrum of the waveform. Having total control of the waveform spectrum has two advantages: First, it facilitates efficient use of the transducer passband, so that the amount of energy converted to heat in the transducer can be decreased. Secondly, by choosing an appropriate amplitude spectrum, no additional temporal tapering has to be applied to the matched filter to achieve sufficient range sidelobe suppression. Proper design results in waveforms with a range sidelobe level beyond -80 dB. The design method is tested experimentally using the RASMUS ultrasound system with a 7 MHz linear array transducer. Synthetic transmit aperture ultrasound imaging is applied to acquire data. The proposed design method was compared to a linear FM signal. Due to more efficient spectral usage, a gain in SNR of 4.3plusmn1.2 dB was measured resulting in an increase of 1 cm in penetration depth. Finally, in-vivo measurements are shown for both methods, where the common carotid artery on a 27 year old healthy male was scanned.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationIEEE Ultrasonics Symposium
PublisherIEEE
Publication date2006
Pages1714-1717
ISBN (Print)1-4244-0201-8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006
Event2006 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium - Vancouver, Canada
Duration: 2 Oct 20066 Oct 2006
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/mostRecentIssue.jsp?punumber=4151855

Conference

Conference2006 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium
CountryCanada
CityVancouver
Period02/10/200606/10/2006
Internet address

Bibliographical note

Copyright: 2006 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE

Cite this

Gran, Fredrik ; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt. / Designing Non-linear Frequency Modulated Signals For Medical Ultrasound Imaging. IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium. IEEE, 2006. pp. 1714-1717
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Gran, F & Jensen, JA 2006, Designing Non-linear Frequency Modulated Signals For Medical Ultrasound Imaging. in IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium. IEEE, pp. 1714-1717, 2006 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, Vancouver, Canada, 02/10/2006. https://doi.org/10.1109/ULTSYM.2006.432

Designing Non-linear Frequency Modulated Signals For Medical Ultrasound Imaging. / Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt.

IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium. IEEE, 2006. p. 1714-1717.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingArticle in proceedingsResearchpeer-review

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N2 - In this paper a new method for designing non-linear frequency modulated (NLFM) waveforms for ultrasound imaging is proposed. The objective is to control the amplitude spectrum of the designed waveform and still keep a constant transmit amplitude, so that the transmitted energy is maximized. The signal-to-noise-ratio can in this way be optimized. The waveform design is based on least squares optimization. A desired amplitude spectrum is chosen, hereafter the phase spectrum is chosen, so that the instantaneous frequency takes on the form of a third order polynomial. The finite energy waveform is derived by minimizing the summed squared error between the desired spectrum and the obtained spectrum of the waveform. Having total control of the waveform spectrum has two advantages: First, it facilitates efficient use of the transducer passband, so that the amount of energy converted to heat in the transducer can be decreased. Secondly, by choosing an appropriate amplitude spectrum, no additional temporal tapering has to be applied to the matched filter to achieve sufficient range sidelobe suppression. Proper design results in waveforms with a range sidelobe level beyond -80 dB. The design method is tested experimentally using the RASMUS ultrasound system with a 7 MHz linear array transducer. Synthetic transmit aperture ultrasound imaging is applied to acquire data. The proposed design method was compared to a linear FM signal. Due to more efficient spectral usage, a gain in SNR of 4.3plusmn1.2 dB was measured resulting in an increase of 1 cm in penetration depth. Finally, in-vivo measurements are shown for both methods, where the common carotid artery on a 27 year old healthy male was scanned.

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