Design optimization of TTEthernet-based distributed real-time systems

Domitian Tamas-Selicean, Paul Pop, Wilfried Steiner

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Many safety-critical real-time applications are implemented using distributed architectures, composed of heterogeneous processing elements interconnected in a network. Our focus in this paper is on the TTEthernet protocol, a deterministic, synchronized and congestion-free network protocol based on the Ethernet standard and compliant with the ARINC 664 Specification Part 7. TTEthernet is highly suitable for safety-critical real-time applications since it offers separation for messages using the concept of virtual links and supports three time-criticality classes: Time-Triggered (TT), Rate-Constrained (RC) and Best-Effort. In this paper we are interested in the design optimization of TTEthernet networks used to transmit real-time application messages. Given the set of TT and RC messages, and the topology of the network, our approach optimizes the packing of messages in frames, the assignment of frames to virtual links, the routing of virtual links and the TT static schedules, such that all frames are schedulable and the worst-case end-to-end delay of the RC messages is minimized. We propose a Tabu Search-based metaheuristic for this optimization problem. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated using several benchmarks.
Original languageEnglish
JournalReal-Time Systems
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)1-35
Number of pages35
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • TTEthernet
  • Real-time
  • Network protocols
  • Scheduling
  • Frame packing
  • Routing


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