Design, fabrication and SNOM investigation of plasmonic devices

Radu Malureanu, Vladimir A. Zenin, Andrei Andryieuski, Ilya P. Radko, Valentyn S. Volkov, Dmitri K. Gramotnev, Andrei Lavrinenko, Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi

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Surface plasmon-polaritons are a possible solution for on-chip transportation and manipulation of information. Although there are several possibilities for designing the plasmonic waveguides, the two major caveats for all of them are the coupling to/from external sources and the losses they exhibit. In this work we will present an overview of our simulation, fabrication and characterisation activity in the plasmonic field where we tackle these issues. We start with presenting an optimised nanoantenna for coupling of free-propagating waves into a subwavelength slot waveguide modes. Optimised antennae show an increase in coupling efficiency up to 185 times compared to a bare waveguide. Once optimized, the nanoantennae were fabricated and the propagation in the slot waveguides was characterised. The characterisation shows an increase in the effective area (proportional to the coupling efficiency) of up to 175 times, similar to the calculated optimised parameters. We then move our attention to effective tapering of the plasmonic modes such that to achieve either strong field enhancement or propagation into thin plasmonic nanowires. Using on-chip nanofocusing with impedance-matched nanoantenna we can obtain a field enhancement of up to ∼ 12000 evenly distributed in a volume of ∼ 30x 30 x 10 nm3. The same taper can be used also for modifying the waveguide profile from a wide strip waveguide to a nanorod waveguide showing both the flexibility of our taper design as well as allowing to measure and compare the propagation characteristics in waveguides with various widths. We show that the propagation length matches very well the theoretical one and also obtain a limit for confinement of the mode in this type of plasmonic waveguides of ∼ λ/15.
Original languageEnglish
Publication date2016
Number of pages1
Publication statusPublished - 2016
EventProgress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium 2016 - Shanghai International Convention Center, Shanghai, China
Duration: 8 Aug 201611 Aug 2016


ConferenceProgress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium 2016
LocationShanghai International Convention Center


  • surface plasmons
  • integrated optics
  • nanophotonics
  • optical couplers
  • optical design techniques
  • optical fabrication
  • optical focusing
  • optical losses
  • optical waveguides
  • optimisation
  • plasmonics
  • polaritons
  • propagation length
  • plasmonic device design
  • plasmonic device fabrication
  • SNOM
  • surface plasmon polaritons
  • on-chip transportation
  • information manipulation
  • plasmonic waveguides
  • optical coupling
  • optimised nanoantenna
  • free-propagating waves
  • subwavelength slot waveguide modes
  • coupling efficiency
  • plasmonic modes
  • field enhancement
  • thin plasmonic nanowires
  • on-chip nanofocusing
  • impedance-matched nanoantenna
  • wide strip waveguide
  • nanorod waveguide
  • taper design flexibility
  • Plasmons
  • Couplings
  • Optics
  • Fabrication
  • Optical waveguide theory
  • Optical waveguides and couplers
  • Optical system design
  • Optical fabrication, surface grinding
  • Collective excitations (surface states)
  • Polaritons
  • Nanophotonic devices and technology
  • Integrated optics
  • Optical waveguides
  • Optimisation techniques


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