Design and Modelling of Thermostatically Controlled Loads as Frequency Controlled Reserve

Zhao Xu, Jacob Østergaard, Mikael Togeby, C. Marcus-Møller

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Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is beneficial to power systems in many aspects. To study the impacts of this technology on power system operation, control logics and simulation models of relevant loads should be carefully developed. Two advanced control logics for using demand as reserve have been presented in this paper. Electricity loads that are applicable for the technique in practical power systems are analysed. Moreover, a simulation model of thermostatically controlled loads, which can provide frequency activated reserve by controlling their set points according to system frequency, is developed. The developed simulation model is able to represent a variety of aggregated thermostatically controlled loads, such as heaters or refrigerators. Uncertainties including customer behaviours and ambient temperature variation are also modelled. Preliminary simulation results are presented and analysed, which demonstrates the great potentials of the DFR technology.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationIEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, 2007.
Publication date2007
ISBN (Print)1-4244-1298-6
Publication statusPublished - 2007
Event2007 IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting - Tampa, FL, United States
Duration: 24 Jun 200728 Jun 2007


Conference2007 IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting
CountryUnited States
CityTampa, FL
Internet address

Bibliographical note

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  • Load modelling
  • Demand as frequency controlled reserve
  • Thermostatically controlled loads


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