Design and engineering of bispecific antibodies: insights and practical considerations

Andreas V. Madsen, Lasse E. Pedersen, Peter Kristensen, Steffen Goletz*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReviewpeer-review

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Bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) have attracted significant attention due to their dual binding activity, which permits simultaneous targeting of antigens and synergistic binding effects beyond what can be obtained even with combinations of conventional monospecific antibodies. Despite the tremendous therapeutic potential, the design and construction of bsAbs are often hampered by practical issues arising from the increased structural complexity as compared to conventional monospecific antibodies. The issues are diverse in nature, spanning from decreased biophysical stability from fusion of exogenous antigen-binding domains to antibody chain mispairing leading to formation of antibody-related impurities that are very difficult to remove. The added complexity requires judicious design considerations as well as extensive molecular engineering to ensure formation of high quality bsAbs with the intended mode of action and favorable drug-like qualities. In this review, we highlight and summarize some of the key considerations in design of bsAbs as well as state-of-the-art engineering principles that can be applied in efficient construction of bsAbs with diverse molecular formats.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1352014
JournalFrontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Number of pages13
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • Bispecific
  • Antibody
  • Immunoglobulin
  • IgG fusion
  • sdAb
  • scFv
  • HC heterodimerization


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