Depth investigation of rapid sand filters for drinking water production reveals strong stratification in nitrification biokinetic behavior

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Abstract

The biokinetic behavior of NH4 + removal was investigated at different depths of a rapid sand filter treating groundwater for drinking water preparation. Filter materials from the top, middle and bottom layers of a full-scale filter were exposed to various controlled NH4 + loadings in a continuous-flow lab-scale assay. NH4 + removal capacity, estimated from short term loading up-shifts, was at least 10 times higher in the top than in the middle and bottom filter layers, consistent with the stratification of Ammonium Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB). AOB density increased consistently with the NH4 + removal rate, indicating their primarily role in nitrification under the imposed experimental conditions. The maximum AOB cell specific NH4 + removal rate observed at the bottom was at least 3 times lower compared to the top and middle layers. Additionally, a significant up-shift capacity (4.6 and 3.5 times) was displayed from the top and middle layers, but not from the bottom layer at increased loading conditions. Hence, AOB with different physiological responses were active at the different depths. The biokinetic analysis predicted that despite the low NH4 + removal capacity at the bottom layer, the entire filter is able to cope with a 4-fold instantaneous loading increase without compromising the effluent NH4 +. Ultimately, this filter up-shift capacity was limited by the density of AOB and their biokinetic behavior, both of which were strongly stratified.
Original languageEnglish
JournalWater Research
Volume101
Pages (from-to)402-410
Number of pages9
ISSN0043-1354
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Keywords

  • Water Science and Technology
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution
  • Ecological Modeling
  • Ammonium oxidizing bacteria
  • Groundwater treatment
  • Loading
  • Nitrification capacity
  • Nitrification kinetics
  • Bacteria
  • Bandpass filters
  • Effluents
  • Groundwater
  • Nitrification
  • Physiological models
  • Potable water
  • Water treatment
  • Drinking water production
  • Experimental conditions
  • Instantaneous loading
  • Physiological response
  • Strong stratification

Cite this

@article{d9761447333e49b7ba35bc39e4291b3e,
title = "Depth investigation of rapid sand filters for drinking water production reveals strong stratification in nitrification biokinetic behavior",
abstract = "The biokinetic behavior of NH4 + removal was investigated at different depths of a rapid sand filter treating groundwater for drinking water preparation. Filter materials from the top, middle and bottom layers of a full-scale filter were exposed to various controlled NH4 + loadings in a continuous-flow lab-scale assay. NH4 + removal capacity, estimated from short term loading up-shifts, was at least 10 times higher in the top than in the middle and bottom filter layers, consistent with the stratification of Ammonium Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB). AOB density increased consistently with the NH4 + removal rate, indicating their primarily role in nitrification under the imposed experimental conditions. The maximum AOB cell specific NH4 + removal rate observed at the bottom was at least 3 times lower compared to the top and middle layers. Additionally, a significant up-shift capacity (4.6 and 3.5 times) was displayed from the top and middle layers, but not from the bottom layer at increased loading conditions. Hence, AOB with different physiological responses were active at the different depths. The biokinetic analysis predicted that despite the low NH4 + removal capacity at the bottom layer, the entire filter is able to cope with a 4-fold instantaneous loading increase without compromising the effluent NH4 +. Ultimately, this filter up-shift capacity was limited by the density of AOB and their biokinetic behavior, both of which were strongly stratified.",
keywords = "Water Science and Technology, Waste Management and Disposal, Pollution, Ecological Modeling, Ammonium oxidizing bacteria, Groundwater treatment, Loading, Nitrification capacity, Nitrification kinetics, Bacteria, Bandpass filters, Effluents, Groundwater, Nitrification, Physiological models, Potable water, Water treatment, Drinking water production, Experimental conditions, Instantaneous loading, Physiological response, Strong stratification",
author = "Karolina Tatari and Smets, {Barth F.} and Hans-J{\o}rgen Albrechtsen",
year = "2016",
doi = "10.1016/j.watres.2016.04.073",
language = "English",
volume = "101",
pages = "402--410",
journal = "Water Research",
issn = "0043-1354",
publisher = "I W A Publishing",

}

Depth investigation of rapid sand filters for drinking water production reveals strong stratification in nitrification biokinetic behavior. / Tatari, Karolina; Smets, Barth F.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen.

In: Water Research, Vol. 101, 2016, p. 402-410.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Depth investigation of rapid sand filters for drinking water production reveals strong stratification in nitrification biokinetic behavior

AU - Tatari, Karolina

AU - Smets, Barth F.

AU - Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - The biokinetic behavior of NH4 + removal was investigated at different depths of a rapid sand filter treating groundwater for drinking water preparation. Filter materials from the top, middle and bottom layers of a full-scale filter were exposed to various controlled NH4 + loadings in a continuous-flow lab-scale assay. NH4 + removal capacity, estimated from short term loading up-shifts, was at least 10 times higher in the top than in the middle and bottom filter layers, consistent with the stratification of Ammonium Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB). AOB density increased consistently with the NH4 + removal rate, indicating their primarily role in nitrification under the imposed experimental conditions. The maximum AOB cell specific NH4 + removal rate observed at the bottom was at least 3 times lower compared to the top and middle layers. Additionally, a significant up-shift capacity (4.6 and 3.5 times) was displayed from the top and middle layers, but not from the bottom layer at increased loading conditions. Hence, AOB with different physiological responses were active at the different depths. The biokinetic analysis predicted that despite the low NH4 + removal capacity at the bottom layer, the entire filter is able to cope with a 4-fold instantaneous loading increase without compromising the effluent NH4 +. Ultimately, this filter up-shift capacity was limited by the density of AOB and their biokinetic behavior, both of which were strongly stratified.

AB - The biokinetic behavior of NH4 + removal was investigated at different depths of a rapid sand filter treating groundwater for drinking water preparation. Filter materials from the top, middle and bottom layers of a full-scale filter were exposed to various controlled NH4 + loadings in a continuous-flow lab-scale assay. NH4 + removal capacity, estimated from short term loading up-shifts, was at least 10 times higher in the top than in the middle and bottom filter layers, consistent with the stratification of Ammonium Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB). AOB density increased consistently with the NH4 + removal rate, indicating their primarily role in nitrification under the imposed experimental conditions. The maximum AOB cell specific NH4 + removal rate observed at the bottom was at least 3 times lower compared to the top and middle layers. Additionally, a significant up-shift capacity (4.6 and 3.5 times) was displayed from the top and middle layers, but not from the bottom layer at increased loading conditions. Hence, AOB with different physiological responses were active at the different depths. The biokinetic analysis predicted that despite the low NH4 + removal capacity at the bottom layer, the entire filter is able to cope with a 4-fold instantaneous loading increase without compromising the effluent NH4 +. Ultimately, this filter up-shift capacity was limited by the density of AOB and their biokinetic behavior, both of which were strongly stratified.

KW - Water Science and Technology

KW - Waste Management and Disposal

KW - Pollution

KW - Ecological Modeling

KW - Ammonium oxidizing bacteria

KW - Groundwater treatment

KW - Loading

KW - Nitrification capacity

KW - Nitrification kinetics

KW - Bacteria

KW - Bandpass filters

KW - Effluents

KW - Groundwater

KW - Nitrification

KW - Physiological models

KW - Potable water

KW - Water treatment

KW - Drinking water production

KW - Experimental conditions

KW - Instantaneous loading

KW - Physiological response

KW - Strong stratification

U2 - 10.1016/j.watres.2016.04.073

DO - 10.1016/j.watres.2016.04.073

M3 - Journal article

VL - 101

SP - 402

EP - 410

JO - Water Research

JF - Water Research

SN - 0043-1354

ER -