Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

Zhao Xu, Jacob Østergaard, Mikael Togeby

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Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new balancing measure, which has a high potential and can provide many advantages. Firstly, the background of the research is reviewed, including conventional power system reserves and the electricity demand side potentials. Subsequently, the control logics and corresponding design considerations for the DFR technology have been developed and analysed, based on which simulation models have been constructed using the DIgSILENT Power Factory platform. The simulation studies of different scenarios confirm that the DFR can provide reliable performance of frequency control. Furthermore, relevant issues regarding implementing DFR in reality have been discussed.
Original languageEnglish
JournalI E E E Transactions on Power Systems
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)1062-1071
Publication statusPublished - 2011

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  • Frequency measurement
  • Resistance heating
  • Demand side
  • Home appliances
  • Frequency control
  • wind power
  • Water heating
  • Power system modeling and simulation

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