Demand And/oR Equity (DARE) method for planning bike-sharing

David Duran-Rodas, Benjamin Wright, Francisco C. Pereira*, Gebhard Wulfhorst

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Most bike-sharing systems in cities aim to maximize demand, an approach that tends to inadvertently favor wealthier neighborhoods. Therefore, we developed a heuristic and data-mining-based method to weigh both Demand And/oR Equity (DARE) in the station distribution and allocation process of planning bike-sharing. Equity is measured using a deprivation index and the potential demand is estimated using structural equation models via the built and social environment. The DARE method was applied first to the BSS service area in Munich, Germany, and then, to the area surrounding Munich, demonstrating the method’s transferability. Incorporating equity resulted in disadvantaged areas being better served by bike-sharing stations while favoring ridership (demand) tended to cluster stations in the wealthier city center. This method allows decision-makers to build scenarios for allocating infrastructure based on their desired fairness criterion, and can also be applied to other shared modes or public transport.
Original languageEnglish
Article number102914
JournalTransportation Research. Part D: Transport & Environment
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Bike sharing
  • Structural equation model
  • Spatial factors
  • Equity
  • Access
  • Planning


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