Deliverable D1.2 Impact of V2X in energy and power systems

Cindy Lascano, Hugo Morais, Valdemar Abril, Herbert Amezquita, Nuno Velosa, Matej Fajgelij, Anton Kos, Xihai Cao, Charalampos Ziras, Ioannis Kordis, Panagiotis Pediaditis, Alexios Lekidis, Igor Mendek, Matej Zajc

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Abstract

The Impact of Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) in energy and power systems deliverable presents a study regarding the impact of the massive penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) in the energy systems. The study is centred in the countries of the EV4EU project members (Denmark, Greece, Portugal, and Slovenia). This document presents a description of the methodology used to analyse the impact of EVs on the energy and power system considering the modelling of EV needs, and high-level power demand and generation. Moreover, several EV management strategies, considering V2X, are proposed aiming to analyse the impact of the mass adoption of EVs until 2050.

A methodology considering the evolution scenario of consumption, generation technologies and EVs has been proposed. Concerning the consumption and generation technologies, several documents were used to identify the expectations and targets in each one of the four countries. The evolution scenarios of the EVs were already studied in the deliverable D1.1 of this project. Based on the number of EVs expected in each year and country, and considering the behaviour of the users, the characteristics of the EVs and the types of charging stations, a tool for generate daily EVs profiles was implemented. This tool allows to determine the energy required to supply the need of the EVs, but mainly the daily power profile. Afterwards, several V2X management strategies were studied allowing to understand the main challenges that the EVs can introduce in the energy and power systems. Three groups of strategies were tested namely, (i) strategies based on price, (ii) strategies based in peak shaving and (iii) strategies based on the coordination with renewables. Finally, the effectiveness of the strategies was analysed considering (i) the use of the charging management and (ii) the availability of V2X capability.

The main achievement of the present study is that EVs will have an important impact in the energy and power system planning mainly in Portugal and Denmark, that are the countries where is expected a higher adoption of EVs until 2050. Another important conclusion of the study is a comparison between the effectiveness of the proposed strategies and the impact of V2X.
• Concerning the EVs management strategies, it was concluded that price-based strategies can be effective for the following years. However, new peaks can arrive due to the concentration of charging in periods where normally the consumption is low. This effect can be mitigated if better strategies of prices were adopted. The peak shaving strategies are interesting to mitigate the impact of EVs in peak periods. For these strategies, new peak limits should be defined to avoid the “curtailment” of EVs charging. However, these strategies do not consider the use of renewables and the power demand curtailment can arrive in periods where renewable production can be used. The strategies based on the coordination between renewables and EVS were the ones that minimize the impact of the EVs in power and energy systems mainly in countries with higher penetration of renewables (Portugal and Denmark). However, these strategies imply a continuous control of the EVs to follow the generation profiles.
• Concerning the impact of V2X strategies, it was concluded that that V2X can have a negative impact where price strategies are in place increasing the volatility of the power demand. For the strategies based on peak shaving and coordination of RES the use of V2X have clear advantages. V2X allows the reduction of the peaks or the reduction of EV charge “curtailment”. In the strategies related with the coordination with RES and EVs it is possible to verify the increased use of renewables and, mainly in Portugal and Greece (due to the high share of PV technologies), the support of the system in the periods where the RES production is low.
Original languageEnglish
PublisherInstituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores Investigação e Desenvolvimento
Number of pages38
Publication statusPublished - 2023

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