Deka-keV X-ray observations of solar bursts with WATCH/GRANAT: frequency distributions of burst parameters

N. Crosby, N. Vilmer, Niels Lund, R. Sunyaev

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


    Solar flare observations in the deka-keV range are performed by the WATCH experiment on board the GRANAT satellite. The WATCH experiment is presented, including the energy calibration as applied in the present work. The creation of the solar burst catalogue covering two years of observation is described and some examples of solar observations are given. The estimated energy releases in the flares presented here are found to extend below the range of hard X-ray flares which were previously studied by ISEE-3 and HXRBS/SMM detectors. The X-ray emitting component cannot be exclusively explained by contributions from a thermal plasma around a few keV. Either a hotter component or a non-thermal population of particles must also be present to produce the observed deka-keV emission. The WATCH data furthermore shows that the relative contributions of these components may change during an event or from event to event and that the injection of energy contained in suprathermal electrons may occur throughout an event and not only during the rise phase. For the most energetic WATCH flares simultaneous observations performed by other experiments at higher energies further indicate that non-thermal emission can be observed as low as 10 keV. A statistical study is performed on the total WATCH solar database and frequency distributions are built on measured X-ray flare parameters. It is also investigated how the properties of these frequency distributions behave when subgroups of events defined by different ranges of parameters are considered. No correlation is found between the elapsed time interval between successive flares arising from the same active region and the peak intensity of the flare.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
    Issue number1
    Pages (from-to)299-313
    Publication statusPublished - 1998


    • Sun : X-rays, gamma rays
    • Sun : activity
    • Sun : flares


    Dive into the research topics of 'Deka-keV X-ray observations of solar bursts with WATCH/GRANAT: frequency distributions of burst parameters'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this