Reports of machine learning implementations in veterinary imaging are infrequent but changes in machine learning architecture and access to increased computing power will likely prompt increased interest. This diagnostic accuracy study describes a particular form of machine learning, a deep learning convolution neural network (ConvNet) for hip joint detection and classification of hip dysplasia from ventro-dorsal (VD) pelvis radiographs submitted for hip dysplasia screening. 11,759 pelvis images were available together with their Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) scores. The dataset was dicotomized into images showing no signs of hip dysplasia (FCI grades “A” and “B”, the “A-B” group) and hips showing signs of dysplasia (FCI grades “C”, “D,” and “E”, the “C-E” group). In a transfer learning approach, an existing pretrained ConvNet was fine-tuned to provide models to recognize hip joints in VD pelvis images and to classify them according to their FCI score grouping. The results yielded two models. The first was successful in detecting hip joints in the VD pelvis images (intersection over union of 85%). The second yielded a sensitivity of 0.53, a specificity of 0.92, a positive predictive value of 0.91, and a negative predictive value of 0.81 for the classification of detected hip joints as being in the “C-E” group. ConvNets and transfer learning are applicable to veterinary imaging. The models obtained have potential to be a tool to aid in hip screening protocols if hip dysplasia classification performance was improved through access to more data and possibly by model optimization.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2021 American College of Veterinary Radiology
- Image classification
- Image segmentation
- Machine learning
- Object detection