Deep Mining of Complex Antibody Phage Pools

Tulika Tulika, Anne Ljungars*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingBook chapterEducationpeer-review


An important, and rapidly growing class of drugs are antibodies which can be discovered through phage display technology. In this technique, antibodies are typically first enriched through consecutive rounds of selection on a target antigen with amplification in bacteria between each selection round. Thereafter, a subset of random individual clones is analyzed for binding in a screening procedure. This results in discovery of the most abundant antibodies in the pool. However, there are multiple factors affecting the enrichment of antibodies during the selection resulting in a very complex output pool of antibodies. A few antibodies are present in many copies and others only in a few copies, where the most abundant antibodies are not necessarily the functionally best ones. In order to utilize the full potential of the output from a phage display selection, and enable discovery of low abundant, potentially functionally important clones, deep mining technologies are needed. In this chapter, two methods for deep mining of an antibody pool are described, protein depletion and antibody blocking. The methods can be applied both when the target is a single antigen and on complex antigen mixtures such as whole cells and tissues.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPhage Display : Methods and Protocols
EditorsMichael Hust, Theam Soon Lim
Number of pages13
Publication date2023
ISBN (Print)978-1-0716-3383-0, 978-1-0716-3380-9
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-0716-3381-6
Publication statusPublished - 2023
SeriesMethods in Molecular Biology


  • Phage display
  • Deep mining
  • Antibody discovery
  • Target discovery
  • Phenotypic screening
  • Complex antigen mixtures
  • Cell planning

Cite this