In this study, we propose an automatic diagnostic algorithm for detecting otitis media based on otoscopy images of the tympanic membrane. A total of 1336 images were assessed by a medical specialist into three diagnostic groups: acute otitis media, otitis media with effusion, and no effusion. To provide proper treatment and care and limit the use of unnecessary antibiotics, it is crucial to correctly detect tympanic membrane abnormalities, and to distinguish between acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion. The proposed approach for this classification task is based on deep metric learning, and this study compares the performance of different distance-based metric loss functions. Contrastive loss, triplet loss and multi-class N-pair loss are employed, and compared with the performance of standard cross-entropy and class-weighted cross-entropy classification networks. Triplet loss achieves high precision on a highly imbalanced data set, and the deep metric methods provide useful insight into the decision making of a neural network. The results are comparable to the best clinical experts and paves the way for more accurate and operator-independent diagnosis of otitis media.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We would like to thank William Demant Fonden (Denmark) for financially supporting this study.
- Convolutional neural network
- Deep metric learning
- Image classification
- Otitis media