Deduction of Passengers' Route Choices From Smart Card Data

Evelien van der Hurk, Leo Kroon, Gabor Maroti, Peter Vervest

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Deducing passengers' route choices from smart card data provides public transport operators the opportunity to evaluate and improve their passenger service. Particularly in the case of disruptions, when traditional route choice models may not be valid, this is an advantage. This paper proposes a method for deducing the chosen route of passengers based on smart card data and validates this method on a real-life data set. The method deduces the correct route for about 95% of the journeys per day in our validation sample, and also in the case of disruptions. Moreover, it is shown how this method can be used to analyze and evaluate passenger service by a case study based on a real-life data set of Netherlands Railways, which is the largest passenger railway operator in the Netherlands.
Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)430-440
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Automotive Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Data mining
  • path prediction
  • public transport
  • rail transportation
  • travel demand analysis
  • travel time variability
  • Railroad transportation
  • Railroads
  • Smart cards
  • Travel time
  • Path prediction
  • Public transport
  • Rail transportation
  • Travel demand analysis
  • Travel time variabilities
  • Transportation
  • traffic engineering computing
  • data mining
  • railways
  • smart cards
  • smart card data
  • Netherlands Railways
  • Conductors
  • Joining processes
  • Clocks
  • Time-frequency analysis
  • Traffic engineering computing
  • Data handling techniques


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