Decentralized and discretized control for storage systems offering primary frequency control

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

48 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

The provision of ancillary services is an additional revenue stream for the owners of inverter-equipped storagesystems, such as batteries and electric vehicles. As real demonstrations have shown, primary frequency control(PFC) is a suitable and economically viable service for small-scale energy storage (ES) systems. This paperproposes a decentralized stochastic control policy, which significantly reduces ES units’ losses when providingPFC. The proposed controller can be tuned to obtain the desired service reserve provision errors, while achievinga balance between tracking accuracy and efficiency. An extension of the algorithm significantly reduces theswitching rate of the devices by up to 95%. Analytical expressions for the reserve errors and the switching rates,dependent on the aggregation size and the controllers’ settings, are derived and verified by simulations.Simulation results show that the proposed controller can significantly reduce ES units’ losses when they areproviding PFC by 8–15.5%, while achieving the expected tracking pe
Original languageEnglish
Article number106000
JournalElectric Power Systems Research
Volume177
Number of pages10
ISSN0378-7796
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Keywords

  • Batteries
  • Decentralized control
  • Electric vehicles
  • Energy storage systems
  • Primary frequency control
  • Stochastic control

Cite this

@article{9f70b338a72f4080a2497635bf6ad4f8,
title = "Decentralized and discretized control for storage systems offering primary frequency control",
abstract = "The provision of ancillary services is an additional revenue stream for the owners of inverter-equipped storagesystems, such as batteries and electric vehicles. As real demonstrations have shown, primary frequency control(PFC) is a suitable and economically viable service for small-scale energy storage (ES) systems. This paperproposes a decentralized stochastic control policy, which significantly reduces ES units’ losses when providingPFC. The proposed controller can be tuned to obtain the desired service reserve provision errors, while achievinga balance between tracking accuracy and efficiency. An extension of the algorithm significantly reduces theswitching rate of the devices by up to 95{\%}. Analytical expressions for the reserve errors and the switching rates,dependent on the aggregation size and the controllers’ settings, are derived and verified by simulations.Simulation results show that the proposed controller can significantly reduce ES units’ losses when they areproviding PFC by 8–15.5{\%}, while achieving the expected tracking pe",
keywords = "Batteries, Decentralized control, Electric vehicles, Energy storage systems, Primary frequency control, Stochastic control",
author = "Charalampos Ziras and Prostejovsky, {Alexander Maria} and Bindner, {Henrik W.} and Mattia Marinelli",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1016/j.epsr.2019.106000",
language = "English",
volume = "177",
journal = "Electric Power Systems Research",
issn = "0378-7796",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Decentralized and discretized control for storage systems offering primary frequency control

AU - Ziras, Charalampos

AU - Prostejovsky, Alexander Maria

AU - Bindner, Henrik W.

AU - Marinelli, Mattia

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - The provision of ancillary services is an additional revenue stream for the owners of inverter-equipped storagesystems, such as batteries and electric vehicles. As real demonstrations have shown, primary frequency control(PFC) is a suitable and economically viable service for small-scale energy storage (ES) systems. This paperproposes a decentralized stochastic control policy, which significantly reduces ES units’ losses when providingPFC. The proposed controller can be tuned to obtain the desired service reserve provision errors, while achievinga balance between tracking accuracy and efficiency. An extension of the algorithm significantly reduces theswitching rate of the devices by up to 95%. Analytical expressions for the reserve errors and the switching rates,dependent on the aggregation size and the controllers’ settings, are derived and verified by simulations.Simulation results show that the proposed controller can significantly reduce ES units’ losses when they areproviding PFC by 8–15.5%, while achieving the expected tracking pe

AB - The provision of ancillary services is an additional revenue stream for the owners of inverter-equipped storagesystems, such as batteries and electric vehicles. As real demonstrations have shown, primary frequency control(PFC) is a suitable and economically viable service for small-scale energy storage (ES) systems. This paperproposes a decentralized stochastic control policy, which significantly reduces ES units’ losses when providingPFC. The proposed controller can be tuned to obtain the desired service reserve provision errors, while achievinga balance between tracking accuracy and efficiency. An extension of the algorithm significantly reduces theswitching rate of the devices by up to 95%. Analytical expressions for the reserve errors and the switching rates,dependent on the aggregation size and the controllers’ settings, are derived and verified by simulations.Simulation results show that the proposed controller can significantly reduce ES units’ losses when they areproviding PFC by 8–15.5%, while achieving the expected tracking pe

KW - Batteries

KW - Decentralized control

KW - Electric vehicles

KW - Energy storage systems

KW - Primary frequency control

KW - Stochastic control

U2 - 10.1016/j.epsr.2019.106000

DO - 10.1016/j.epsr.2019.106000

M3 - Journal article

VL - 177

JO - Electric Power Systems Research

JF - Electric Power Systems Research

SN - 0378-7796

M1 - 106000

ER -