De-homogenization of optimal multi-scale 3D topologies

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Paper-based packaging products, due to their excellent sustainable properties are preferred over the glass, plastic, and metal-based packaging solutions. The paper bottle molding process is very new in this category, and the tooling aspect is not well explored. Existing tooling solutions offer certain limitations in the molding process such as clogging of channels, low open-area fraction, low fatigue life, and longer cycle times. With the utilization of additive manufacturing techniques, the tooling can not only be made more economical and produced in shorter time duration but also more efficient. VAT photopolymerization based soft tooling process chain is highlighted and discussed in this work. Design of micro-features and their fabrication is carried out using UV light mask projection method. A characterization approach for precision manufacturing of micro-features using X-ray Computed Tomography is also discussed. Validation of the soft tooling process chain and its effectiveness against the conventional tools is presented and discussed in this work. It is shown that the proposed soft tooling process chain for the manufacturing of molds for paper bottle production is a better performing and cheaper alternative to existing solutions implemented in industry.
Original languageEnglish
Article number112979
JournalComputer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering
Number of pages129
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Optimal microstructures
  • Giga-scale topology optimization
  • Numerical efficiency
  • Length-scale enforcement
  • De-homogenization

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