Many physical and mechanical properties of crystalline materials depend strongly on their internal structure, which is typically organized into grains and domains on several length scales. Here we present dark-field X-ray microscopy; a non-destructive microscopy technique for the three-dimensional mapping of orientations and stresses on lengths scales from 100 nm to 1mm within embedded sampling volumes. The technique, which allows 'zooming' in and out in both direct and angular space, is demonstrated by an annealing study of plastically deformed aluminium. Facilitating the direct study of the interactions between crystalline elements is a key step towards the formulation and validation of multiscale models that account for the entire heterogeneity of a material. Furthermore, dark-field X-ray microscopy is well suited to applied topics, where the structural evolution of internal nanoscale elements (for example, positioned at interfaces) is crucial to the performance and lifetime of macro-scale devices and components thereof.
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- REFRACTIVE LENSES
- INDIVIDUAL GRAINS