Denmark is almost completely surrounded by water, from the western mainland (Jutland), to its easternmost point (Christiansø) in the central Baltic Sea. Despite its small size (42,924 km2), the numerous peninsulas and islands provides Denmark with 7314 km of coastline, one of the longest in Europe. Moreover, approximately 64,000 km of streams and rivers, connect some of the 120,000 lakes and ponds (>100 m2) found in the country. Together these marine, estuarine, and freshwater habitats constitute a firm foundation for production and exploitation of aquatic resources, in the form of fishing and aquaculture. Not surprisingly, Denmark has been a fishing nation since ancient times (e.g., Enghoff et al. 2007), and ranks among the 20 largest exporters of fish and fish products in the world, and in some years even among the top 10 (e.g., FAO 2011). Aquaculture has been practiced in Denmark for almost 800 years and today the Danish secondary industries for aquaculture (e.g., feed manufacture and recirculation technology) are world-renowned. As in many developed countries, fishing for recreational purposes has increased in popularity over the past century, and today constitutes an important leisure activity for a large part of the population. This review aims to describe the current state of Danish fisheries and aquaculture including major historical developments and examples of cultural importance, as well as briefly touching upon future perspectives.