Curvilinear 3-D Imaging Using Row--Column-Addressed 2-D Arrays with a Diverging Lens: Feasibility Study

Hamed Bouzari, Mathias Engholm, Christopher Beers, Matthias Bo Stuart, Svetoslav Ivanov Nikolov, Erik Vilain Thomsen, Jørgen Arendt Jensen

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Constructing a double-curved row–columnaddressed (RCA) 2-D array or applying a diverging lens over the flat RCA 2-D array can extend the imaging field-of-view (FOV) to a curvilinear volume without increasing the aperture size, which is necessary for applications such as abdominal and cardiac imaging. Extended FOV and low channel count of double-curved RCA 2-D arrays make 3-D imaging possible with equipment in the price range of conventional 2-D imaging. This study proposes a delay-and-sum beamformation scheme specific to double-curved RCA 2-D arrays and validates its focusing ability based on simulations. A synthetic aperture imaging sequence with single element transmissions is designed for imaging down to 14 cm at a volume rate of 88 Hz. Using a diverging lens with f-number of -1 circumscribing the underlying RCA array, the imaging quality of a double-curved λ/2-pitch 3 MHz 62+62 RCA 2-D array is investigated as a function of depth within a curvilinear FOV of 60°×60°. The simulated double-curved 2-D array exhibits the same full-width-at-halfmaximum values for a point scatterer within its curvilinear FOV at a fixed radial distance compared with a flat 2-D array within its rectilinear FOV. The results of this study demonstrate that the proposed beamforming approach is accurate for achieving correct time-of-flight calculations, and hence avoids geometrical distortions.
Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)978-988
Publication statusPublished - 2017

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  • 3-D ultrasound imaging
  • Synthetic Aperture
  • Row-column addressed 2-D arrays
  • Beamforming
  • Lenses

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