Crosiellidines are intriguing pyrazine-alkylguanidine metabolites isolated from the minor actinomycete genus Crossiella. Their structures present an unprecedented 2-methoxy-3,5,6-trialkyl pyrazine scaffold and uncommon guanidine prenylations, including an exotic O-prenylated N-hydroxyguanidine moiety. The novel substitution pattern of the 2-methoxypyrazine core inaugurates a new class of naturally occurring pyrazine compounds, the biosynthetic implications of which are discussed herein. Isotopic feeding and genome analysis allowed us to propose a biosynthetic pathway from arginine. The crossiellidines exhibited remarkable, broad-spectrum antibacterial activity.