Cross-Linked Amylose Bio-Plastic: A Transgenic-Based Compostable Plastic Alternative: a transgenic-based compostable plastic alternative

Domenico Sagnelli, Kourosh Hooshmand, Gerdi Christine Kemmer, Jacob J. K. Kirkensgaard, Kell Mortensen, Concetta Valeria L. Giosafatto, Mette Holse, Kim H. Hebelstrup, Jinsong Bao, Wolfgang Stelte, Anne-Belinda Bjerre, Andreas Blennow

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Bio-plastics and bio-materials are composed of natural or biomass derived polymers, offering solutions to solve immediate environmental issues. Polysaccharide-based bio-plastics represent important alternatives to conventional plastic because of their intrinsic biodegradable nature. Amylose-only (AO), an engineered barley starch with 99% amylose, was tested to produce cross-linked all-natural bioplastic using normal barley starch as a control. Glycerol was used as plasticizer and citrate cross-linking was used to improve the mechanical properties of cross-linked AO starch extrudates. Extrusion converted the control starch from A-type to Vh-and B-type crystals, showing a complete melting of the starch crystals in the raw starch granules. The cross-linked AO and control starch specimens displayed an additional wide-angle diffraction reflection. Phospholipids complexed with Vh-type single helices constituted an integrated part of the AO starch specimens. Gas permeability tests of selected starch-based prototypes demonstrated properties comparable to that of commercial Mater-Bi(C) plastic. The cross-linked AO prototypes had composting characteristics not different from the control, indicating that the modified starch behaves the same as normal starch. The data shows the feasibility of producing all-natural bioplastic using designer starch as raw material.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2075
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number10
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 2017
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

© 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (


  • Starch
  • Amylose
  • Bioplastic
  • Cross-linker
  • Amylose permeability
  • Cross-link assay
  • Citric acid


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