Countermeasures and Barriers

Johannes Petersen

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    In 1973 Haddon proposed ten strategies for reducing and avoiding damages
    based on a model of potential harmful energy transfer (Haddon, 1973). The
    strategies apply to a large variety of unwanted phenomena. Haddon’s pioneering
    work on countermeasures has had a major influence on later thinking about
    safety. Considering its impact it is remarkable that the literature offers almost no
    discussions related to the theoretical foundations of Haddon’s countermeasure
    strategies. The present report addresses a number of theoretical issues related to Haddon’s countermeasure strategies, which are:
    • A reformulation and formalization of Haddon’s countermeasure strategies
    • An identification and description of some of the problems associated with the term “barrier”
    • Suggestions for a more precise terminology based on the causal structure of countermeasures
    • Extending the scope of countermeasures to include sign-based countermeasures
    Original languageEnglish
    Place of PublicationRoskilde
    PublisherNordic Nuclear Safety Research
    Number of pages19
    ISBN (Electronic)87-7893-174-6
    Publication statusPublished - 2005


    • Countermeasures
    • Barriers
    • Haddon's strategy
    • Theoretical foundation


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