Correlating charge transport to structure in deconstructed diketopyrrolopyrrole oligomers: A case study of a monomer in field-effect transistors

Alec Pickett, Mika Torkkeli, Tushita Mukhopadhyay, Boregowda Puttaraju, Amrit Laudari, Andreas Lauritzen, Oier Bikondoa, Jakob Kjelstrup-Hansen, Matti Knaapila*, Satish Patil, Suchismita Guha

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Copolymers based on diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) cores have attracted a lot of attention due to their high p-type as well as n-type carrier mobilities in organic field-effect transistors (FETs) and high power conversion efficiencies in solar cell structures. We report the structural and charge transport properties of n-dialkyl side-chain substituted thiophene DPP end-capped with a phenyl group (Ph-TDPP-Ph) in FETs which were fabricated by vacuum deposition and solvent coating. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) from bottom-gate, bottom-contact FET architectures were measured with and without biasing. Ph-TDPP-Ph reveals polymorphic structure with π-conjugated stacking direction oriented in-plane. The unit cell comprises either one monomer with a=20.89 Å, b=13.02 Å, c=5.85 Å, α=101.4°, β=90.6°, and γ=94.7° for one phase (TR1), or two monomers with a=24.92 Å, b=25.59 Å, c=5.42 Å, α=80.3°, β=83.5°, and γ=111.8° for the second phase (TR2). The TR2 phase thus signals a shift from a coplanar to herringbone orientation of the molecules. The device performance is sensitive to the ratio of the two triclinic phases found in the film. Some of the best FET performances with p-type carrier mobilities of 0.1 cm2/Vs and on/off ratio of 106 are for films that comprise mainly the TR1 phase. GIXRD from in-operando FETs demonstrates the crystalline stability of Ph-TDPP-Ph.
Original languageEnglish
JournalA C S Applied Materials and Interfaces
Volume10
Issue number23
Pages (from-to)19844-19852
Number of pages9
ISSN1944-8244
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Keywords

  • Conjugated molecules
  • Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction
  • Field-effect transistors
  • Charge transport
  • Polymorphism

Cite this

Pickett, Alec ; Torkkeli, Mika ; Mukhopadhyay, Tushita ; Puttaraju, Boregowda ; Laudari, Amrit ; Lauritzen, Andreas ; Bikondoa, Oier ; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob ; Knaapila, Matti ; Patil, Satish ; Guha, Suchismita. / Correlating charge transport to structure in deconstructed diketopyrrolopyrrole oligomers: A case study of a monomer in field-effect transistors. In: A C S Applied Materials and Interfaces. 2018 ; Vol. 10, No. 23. pp. 19844-19852.
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title = "Correlating charge transport to structure in deconstructed diketopyrrolopyrrole oligomers: A case study of a monomer in field-effect transistors",
abstract = "Copolymers based on diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) cores have attracted a lot of attention due to their high p-type as well as n-type carrier mobilities in organic field-effect transistors (FETs) and high power conversion efficiencies in solar cell structures. We report the structural and charge transport properties of n-dialkyl side-chain substituted thiophene DPP end-capped with a phenyl group (Ph-TDPP-Ph) in FETs which were fabricated by vacuum deposition and solvent coating. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) from bottom-gate, bottom-contact FET architectures were measured with and without biasing. Ph-TDPP-Ph reveals polymorphic structure with π-conjugated stacking direction oriented in-plane. The unit cell comprises either one monomer with a=20.89 {\AA}, b=13.02 {\AA}, c=5.85 {\AA}, α=101.4°, β=90.6°, and γ=94.7° for one phase (TR1), or two monomers with a=24.92 {\AA}, b=25.59 {\AA}, c=5.42 {\AA}, α=80.3°, β=83.5°, and γ=111.8° for the second phase (TR2). The TR2 phase thus signals a shift from a coplanar to herringbone orientation of the molecules. The device performance is sensitive to the ratio of the two triclinic phases found in the film. Some of the best FET performances with p-type carrier mobilities of 0.1 cm2/Vs and on/off ratio of 106 are for films that comprise mainly the TR1 phase. GIXRD from in-operando FETs demonstrates the crystalline stability of Ph-TDPP-Ph.",
keywords = "Conjugated molecules, Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, Field-effect transistors, Charge transport, Polymorphism",
author = "Alec Pickett and Mika Torkkeli and Tushita Mukhopadhyay and Boregowda Puttaraju and Amrit Laudari and Andreas Lauritzen and Oier Bikondoa and Jakob Kjelstrup-Hansen and Matti Knaapila and Satish Patil and Suchismita Guha",
year = "2018",
doi = "10.1021/acsami.8b04711",
language = "English",
volume = "10",
pages = "19844--19852",
journal = "A C S Applied Materials and Interfaces",
issn = "1944-8244",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "23",

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Pickett, A, Torkkeli, M, Mukhopadhyay, T, Puttaraju, B, Laudari, A, Lauritzen, A, Bikondoa, O, Kjelstrup-Hansen, J, Knaapila, M, Patil, S & Guha, S 2018, 'Correlating charge transport to structure in deconstructed diketopyrrolopyrrole oligomers: A case study of a monomer in field-effect transistors', A C S Applied Materials and Interfaces, vol. 10, no. 23, pp. 19844-19852. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b04711

Correlating charge transport to structure in deconstructed diketopyrrolopyrrole oligomers: A case study of a monomer in field-effect transistors. / Pickett, Alec; Torkkeli, Mika; Mukhopadhyay, Tushita; Puttaraju, Boregowda; Laudari, Amrit; Lauritzen, Andreas; Bikondoa, Oier; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Knaapila, Matti; Patil, Satish; Guha, Suchismita.

In: A C S Applied Materials and Interfaces, Vol. 10, No. 23, 2018, p. 19844-19852.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Correlating charge transport to structure in deconstructed diketopyrrolopyrrole oligomers: A case study of a monomer in field-effect transistors

AU - Pickett, Alec

AU - Torkkeli, Mika

AU - Mukhopadhyay, Tushita

AU - Puttaraju, Boregowda

AU - Laudari, Amrit

AU - Lauritzen, Andreas

AU - Bikondoa, Oier

AU - Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob

AU - Knaapila, Matti

AU - Patil, Satish

AU - Guha, Suchismita

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - Copolymers based on diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) cores have attracted a lot of attention due to their high p-type as well as n-type carrier mobilities in organic field-effect transistors (FETs) and high power conversion efficiencies in solar cell structures. We report the structural and charge transport properties of n-dialkyl side-chain substituted thiophene DPP end-capped with a phenyl group (Ph-TDPP-Ph) in FETs which were fabricated by vacuum deposition and solvent coating. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) from bottom-gate, bottom-contact FET architectures were measured with and without biasing. Ph-TDPP-Ph reveals polymorphic structure with π-conjugated stacking direction oriented in-plane. The unit cell comprises either one monomer with a=20.89 Å, b=13.02 Å, c=5.85 Å, α=101.4°, β=90.6°, and γ=94.7° for one phase (TR1), or two monomers with a=24.92 Å, b=25.59 Å, c=5.42 Å, α=80.3°, β=83.5°, and γ=111.8° for the second phase (TR2). The TR2 phase thus signals a shift from a coplanar to herringbone orientation of the molecules. The device performance is sensitive to the ratio of the two triclinic phases found in the film. Some of the best FET performances with p-type carrier mobilities of 0.1 cm2/Vs and on/off ratio of 106 are for films that comprise mainly the TR1 phase. GIXRD from in-operando FETs demonstrates the crystalline stability of Ph-TDPP-Ph.

AB - Copolymers based on diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) cores have attracted a lot of attention due to their high p-type as well as n-type carrier mobilities in organic field-effect transistors (FETs) and high power conversion efficiencies in solar cell structures. We report the structural and charge transport properties of n-dialkyl side-chain substituted thiophene DPP end-capped with a phenyl group (Ph-TDPP-Ph) in FETs which were fabricated by vacuum deposition and solvent coating. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) from bottom-gate, bottom-contact FET architectures were measured with and without biasing. Ph-TDPP-Ph reveals polymorphic structure with π-conjugated stacking direction oriented in-plane. The unit cell comprises either one monomer with a=20.89 Å, b=13.02 Å, c=5.85 Å, α=101.4°, β=90.6°, and γ=94.7° for one phase (TR1), or two monomers with a=24.92 Å, b=25.59 Å, c=5.42 Å, α=80.3°, β=83.5°, and γ=111.8° for the second phase (TR2). The TR2 phase thus signals a shift from a coplanar to herringbone orientation of the molecules. The device performance is sensitive to the ratio of the two triclinic phases found in the film. Some of the best FET performances with p-type carrier mobilities of 0.1 cm2/Vs and on/off ratio of 106 are for films that comprise mainly the TR1 phase. GIXRD from in-operando FETs demonstrates the crystalline stability of Ph-TDPP-Ph.

KW - Conjugated molecules

KW - Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction

KW - Field-effect transistors

KW - Charge transport

KW - Polymorphism

U2 - 10.1021/acsami.8b04711

DO - 10.1021/acsami.8b04711

M3 - Journal article

VL - 10

SP - 19844

EP - 19852

JO - A C S Applied Materials and Interfaces

JF - A C S Applied Materials and Interfaces

SN - 1944-8244

IS - 23

ER -