Coordinating Multiple Resources for Emergency Frequency Control in the Energy Receiving-End Power System with HVDCs

Zheng Shi, Yin Xu, Ying Wang*, Jinghan He, Gen Li, Zhao Liu

*Corresponding author for this work

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High voltage transmission lines, especially high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) lines, have been built around the world linking the populated load centers with major green energy resources at a far distance or offshore. Any major faults on these long-distance point-to-point connections may lead to large power unbalances and cause frequency security problems in the regional grid at the energy receiving end. In this work, an emergence frequency control strategy is proposed, utilizing available frequency response resources at the receiving end, including synchronous generators, local wind farms, battery-based energy storage systems, pumped hydro storages, etc. First, a system frequency response model consisting of multiple resources is formulated, including the secondary frequency drop caused by wind farms. Then, the order of the model is reduced to derive the analytical expressions of the frequency nadirs and the quasi-steady-state frequency. Finally, the emergency frequency control decision method is proposed with the consideration of the system frequency security constraints. The proposed strategy is studied and analyzed with simulations on a generalized model of Huadong regional grid in eastern China.
Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Issue number5
Pages (from-to)4708-4723
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Emergency frequency control
  • Receiving-end power system
  • System frequency response (SFR) model
  • Model reduction
  • Wind farm


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