Coordinated Control of HVDC and HVAC Power Transmission Systems Integrating a Large Offshore Wind Farm

Ali Bidadfar*, Oscar Saborío-Romano, Jayachandra Naidu Sakamuri, Vladislav Akhmatov, Nicolaos Antonio Cutululis, Poul Ejnar Sørensen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Abstract

The development of efficient and reliable offshore electrical transmission infrastructure is a key factor in the proliferation of offshore wind farms (OWFs). Traditionally, high-voltage AC (HVAC) transmission has been used for OWFs. Recently, voltage-source-converter-based (VSC-based) high-voltage DC (VSC-HVDC) transmission technologies have also been considered due to their grid-forming capabilities. Diode-rectifier-based (DR-based) HVDC (DR-HVDC) transmission is also getting attention due to its increased reliability and reduced offshore platform footprint. Parallel operation of transmission systems using such technologies can be expected in the near future as new OWFs are planned in the vicinity of existing ones, with connections to more than one onshore AC system. This work addresses the control and parallel operation of three transmission links: VSC-HVDC, DR-HVDC, and HVAC, connecting a large OWF (cluster) to three different onshore AC systems. The HVAC link forms the offshore AC grid, while the diode rectifier and the wind farm are synchronized to this grid voltage. The offshore HVDC converter can operate in grid-following or grid-forming mode, depending on the requirement. The contributions of this paper are threefold. (1) Novel DR- and VSC-HVDC control methods are proposed for the parallel operation of the three transmission systems. (2) An effective control method for the offshore converter of VSC-HVDC is proposed such that it can effectively operate as either a grid-following or a grid-forming converter. (3) A novel phase-locked loop (PLL) control for VSC-HVDC is proposed for the easy transition from the grid-following to the grid-forming converter in case the HVAC link trips. Dynamic simulations in PSCAD validate the ability of the proposed controllers to ride through faults and transition between grid-following and grid-forming operation
Original languageEnglish
Article number3435
JournalEnergies
Volume12
Issue number18
Number of pages13
ISSN1996-1073
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Keywords

  • Offshore wind
  • Power transmission systems
  • Diode rectifiers
  • Converter control system
  • HVDC links

Cite this

@article{63792c8211914b7db18529340485e70f,
title = "Coordinated Control of HVDC and HVAC Power Transmission Systems Integrating a Large Offshore Wind Farm",
abstract = "The development of efficient and reliable offshore electrical transmission infrastructure is a key factor in the proliferation of offshore wind farms (OWFs). Traditionally, high-voltage AC (HVAC) transmission has been used for OWFs. Recently, voltage-source-converter-based (VSC-based) high-voltage DC (VSC-HVDC) transmission technologies have also been considered due to their grid-forming capabilities. Diode-rectifier-based (DR-based) HVDC (DR-HVDC) transmission is also getting attention due to its increased reliability and reduced offshore platform footprint. Parallel operation of transmission systems using such technologies can be expected in the near future as new OWFs are planned in the vicinity of existing ones, with connections to more than one onshore AC system. This work addresses the control and parallel operation of three transmission links: VSC-HVDC, DR-HVDC, and HVAC, connecting a large OWF (cluster) to three different onshore AC systems. The HVAC link forms the offshore AC grid, while the diode rectifier and the wind farm are synchronized to this grid voltage. The offshore HVDC converter can operate in grid-following or grid-forming mode, depending on the requirement. The contributions of this paper are threefold. (1) Novel DR- and VSC-HVDC control methods are proposed for the parallel operation of the three transmission systems. (2) An effective control method for the offshore converter of VSC-HVDC is proposed such that it can effectively operate as either a grid-following or a grid-forming converter. (3) A novel phase-locked loop (PLL) control for VSC-HVDC is proposed for the easy transition from the grid-following to the grid-forming converter in case the HVAC link trips. Dynamic simulations in PSCAD validate the ability of the proposed controllers to ride through faults and transition between grid-following and grid-forming operation",
keywords = "Offshore wind, Power transmission systems, Diode rectifiers, Converter control system, HVDC links",
author = "Ali Bidadfar and Oscar Sabor{\'i}o-Romano and Sakamuri, {Jayachandra Naidu} and Vladislav Akhmatov and Cutululis, {Nicolaos Antonio} and S{\o}rensen, {Poul Ejnar}",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.3390/en12183435",
language = "English",
volume = "12",
journal = "Energies",
issn = "1996-1073",
publisher = "M D P I AG",
number = "18",

}

Coordinated Control of HVDC and HVAC Power Transmission Systems Integrating a Large Offshore Wind Farm. / Bidadfar, Ali; Saborío-Romano, Oscar; Sakamuri, Jayachandra Naidu; Akhmatov, Vladislav; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar.

In: Energies, Vol. 12, No. 18, 3435, 2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Coordinated Control of HVDC and HVAC Power Transmission Systems Integrating a Large Offshore Wind Farm

AU - Bidadfar, Ali

AU - Saborío-Romano, Oscar

AU - Sakamuri, Jayachandra Naidu

AU - Akhmatov, Vladislav

AU - Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

AU - Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - The development of efficient and reliable offshore electrical transmission infrastructure is a key factor in the proliferation of offshore wind farms (OWFs). Traditionally, high-voltage AC (HVAC) transmission has been used for OWFs. Recently, voltage-source-converter-based (VSC-based) high-voltage DC (VSC-HVDC) transmission technologies have also been considered due to their grid-forming capabilities. Diode-rectifier-based (DR-based) HVDC (DR-HVDC) transmission is also getting attention due to its increased reliability and reduced offshore platform footprint. Parallel operation of transmission systems using such technologies can be expected in the near future as new OWFs are planned in the vicinity of existing ones, with connections to more than one onshore AC system. This work addresses the control and parallel operation of three transmission links: VSC-HVDC, DR-HVDC, and HVAC, connecting a large OWF (cluster) to three different onshore AC systems. The HVAC link forms the offshore AC grid, while the diode rectifier and the wind farm are synchronized to this grid voltage. The offshore HVDC converter can operate in grid-following or grid-forming mode, depending on the requirement. The contributions of this paper are threefold. (1) Novel DR- and VSC-HVDC control methods are proposed for the parallel operation of the three transmission systems. (2) An effective control method for the offshore converter of VSC-HVDC is proposed such that it can effectively operate as either a grid-following or a grid-forming converter. (3) A novel phase-locked loop (PLL) control for VSC-HVDC is proposed for the easy transition from the grid-following to the grid-forming converter in case the HVAC link trips. Dynamic simulations in PSCAD validate the ability of the proposed controllers to ride through faults and transition between grid-following and grid-forming operation

AB - The development of efficient and reliable offshore electrical transmission infrastructure is a key factor in the proliferation of offshore wind farms (OWFs). Traditionally, high-voltage AC (HVAC) transmission has been used for OWFs. Recently, voltage-source-converter-based (VSC-based) high-voltage DC (VSC-HVDC) transmission technologies have also been considered due to their grid-forming capabilities. Diode-rectifier-based (DR-based) HVDC (DR-HVDC) transmission is also getting attention due to its increased reliability and reduced offshore platform footprint. Parallel operation of transmission systems using such technologies can be expected in the near future as new OWFs are planned in the vicinity of existing ones, with connections to more than one onshore AC system. This work addresses the control and parallel operation of three transmission links: VSC-HVDC, DR-HVDC, and HVAC, connecting a large OWF (cluster) to three different onshore AC systems. The HVAC link forms the offshore AC grid, while the diode rectifier and the wind farm are synchronized to this grid voltage. The offshore HVDC converter can operate in grid-following or grid-forming mode, depending on the requirement. The contributions of this paper are threefold. (1) Novel DR- and VSC-HVDC control methods are proposed for the parallel operation of the three transmission systems. (2) An effective control method for the offshore converter of VSC-HVDC is proposed such that it can effectively operate as either a grid-following or a grid-forming converter. (3) A novel phase-locked loop (PLL) control for VSC-HVDC is proposed for the easy transition from the grid-following to the grid-forming converter in case the HVAC link trips. Dynamic simulations in PSCAD validate the ability of the proposed controllers to ride through faults and transition between grid-following and grid-forming operation

KW - Offshore wind

KW - Power transmission systems

KW - Diode rectifiers

KW - Converter control system

KW - HVDC links

U2 - 10.3390/en12183435

DO - 10.3390/en12183435

M3 - Journal article

VL - 12

JO - Energies

JF - Energies

SN - 1996-1073

IS - 18

M1 - 3435

ER -