Controllability and stability of primary frequency control from thermostatic loads with delays

Charalampos Ziras, Evangelos Vrettos, Shi You

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    Abstract

    There is an increasing interest in exploiting the flexibility of loads to provide ancillary services to the grid. In this paper we study how response delays and lockout
    constraints affect the controllability of an aggregation of refrigerators offering primary frequency control (PFC). First we examine the effect of delays in PFC provision
    from an aggregation of refrigerators, using a two-area power system. We propose a framework to systematically address frequency measurement and response delays and we determine safe values for the total delays via simulations. We introduce a controllability index to evaluate PFC provision under lockout constraints of refrigerators compressors. We conduct extensive simulations to study the effects of measurement delay, ramping times, lockout durations and rotational inertia on the controllability of the aggregation and system stability. Finally, we discuss solutions for offering reliable PFC provision from thermostatically controlled loads under lockout constraints and
    we propose a supervisory control to enhance the robustness of their controllers.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalJournal of Modern Power Systems and Clean Energy
    Volume5
    Issue number1
    Pages (from-to)43–54
    ISSN2196-5625
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2017

    Bibliographical note

    © The Author(s) 2017. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com The Author(s) 2017. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com

    Keywords

    • Primary frequency control
    • Stability
    • Controllability
    • Delay
    • Thermostatically controlled loads

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