Contrasting response of European forest and grassland energy exchange to heatwaves

A.J. Teuling, S.I. Seneviratne, R. Stöckli, M. Reichstein, E. Moors, P. Ciais, S. Luyssaert, B. Van Den Hurk, C. Ammann, C. Bernhofer, Ebba Dellwik, D. Gianelle, B. Gielen, T. Grünwald, K. Klumpp, L. Montagnani, C. Moureaux, C. Sottocomola, M. Wohlfahrt

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

    Abstract

    Recent European heatwaves have raised interest in the impact of land cover conditions on temperature extremes. At present, it is believed that such extremes are enhanced by stronger surface heating of the atmosphere, when soil moisture content is below average. However, the impact of land cover on the exchange of water and energy and the interaction of this exchange with the soil water balance during heatwaves is largely unknown. Here we analyse observations from an extensive network of flux towers in Europe that reveal a difference between the temporal responses of forest and grassland ecosystems during heatwaves. We find that initially, surface heating is twice as high over forest than over grassland. Over grass, heating is suppressed by increased evaporation in response to increased solar radiation and temperature. Ultimately, however, this process accelerates soil moisture depletion and induces a critical shift in the regional climate system that leads to increased heating. We propose that this mechanism may explain the extreme temperatures in August 2003. We conclude that the conservative water use of forest contributes to increased temperatures in the short term, but mitigates the impact of the most extreme heat and/or long-lasting events.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalNature Geoscience
    Volume30
    Issue number10
    Pages (from-to)722-727
    ISSN1752-0894
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2010

    Keywords

    • Wind power meteorology
    • Vindenergi
    • Wind Energy

    Cite this

    Teuling, A. J., Seneviratne, S. I., Stöckli, R., Reichstein, M., Moors, E., Ciais, P., ... Wohlfahrt, M. (2010). Contrasting response of European forest and grassland energy exchange to heatwaves. Nature Geoscience, 30(10), 722-727. https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo950
    Teuling, A.J. ; Seneviratne, S.I. ; Stöckli, R. ; Reichstein, M. ; Moors, E. ; Ciais, P. ; Luyssaert, S. ; Van Den Hurk, B. ; Ammann, C. ; Bernhofer, C. ; Dellwik, Ebba ; Gianelle, D. ; Gielen, B. ; Grünwald, T. ; Klumpp, K. ; Montagnani, L. ; Moureaux, C. ; Sottocomola, C. ; Wohlfahrt, M. / Contrasting response of European forest and grassland energy exchange to heatwaves. In: Nature Geoscience. 2010 ; Vol. 30, No. 10. pp. 722-727.
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    title = "Contrasting response of European forest and grassland energy exchange to heatwaves",
    abstract = "Recent European heatwaves have raised interest in the impact of land cover conditions on temperature extremes. At present, it is believed that such extremes are enhanced by stronger surface heating of the atmosphere, when soil moisture content is below average. However, the impact of land cover on the exchange of water and energy and the interaction of this exchange with the soil water balance during heatwaves is largely unknown. Here we analyse observations from an extensive network of flux towers in Europe that reveal a difference between the temporal responses of forest and grassland ecosystems during heatwaves. We find that initially, surface heating is twice as high over forest than over grassland. Over grass, heating is suppressed by increased evaporation in response to increased solar radiation and temperature. Ultimately, however, this process accelerates soil moisture depletion and induces a critical shift in the regional climate system that leads to increased heating. We propose that this mechanism may explain the extreme temperatures in August 2003. We conclude that the conservative water use of forest contributes to increased temperatures in the short term, but mitigates the impact of the most extreme heat and/or long-lasting events.",
    keywords = "Wind power meteorology, Vindenergi, Wind Energy, Vindkraftmeteorologi",
    author = "A.J. Teuling and S.I. Seneviratne and R. St{\"o}ckli and M. Reichstein and E. Moors and P. Ciais and S. Luyssaert and {Van Den Hurk}, B. and C. Ammann and C. Bernhofer and Ebba Dellwik and D. Gianelle and B. Gielen and T. Gr{\"u}nwald and K. Klumpp and L. Montagnani and C. Moureaux and C. Sottocomola and M. Wohlfahrt",
    year = "2010",
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    Teuling, AJ, Seneviratne, SI, Stöckli, R, Reichstein, M, Moors, E, Ciais, P, Luyssaert, S, Van Den Hurk, B, Ammann, C, Bernhofer, C, Dellwik, E, Gianelle, D, Gielen, B, Grünwald, T, Klumpp, K, Montagnani, L, Moureaux, C, Sottocomola, C & Wohlfahrt, M 2010, 'Contrasting response of European forest and grassland energy exchange to heatwaves', Nature Geoscience, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 722-727. https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo950

    Contrasting response of European forest and grassland energy exchange to heatwaves. / Teuling, A.J.; Seneviratne, S.I.; Stöckli, R.; Reichstein, M.; Moors, E.; Ciais, P.; Luyssaert, S.; Van Den Hurk, B.; Ammann, C.; Bernhofer, C.; Dellwik, Ebba; Gianelle, D.; Gielen, B.; Grünwald, T.; Klumpp, K.; Montagnani, L.; Moureaux, C.; Sottocomola, C.; Wohlfahrt, M.

    In: Nature Geoscience, Vol. 30, No. 10, 2010, p. 722-727.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Contrasting response of European forest and grassland energy exchange to heatwaves

    AU - Teuling, A.J.

    AU - Seneviratne, S.I.

    AU - Stöckli, R.

    AU - Reichstein, M.

    AU - Moors, E.

    AU - Ciais, P.

    AU - Luyssaert, S.

    AU - Van Den Hurk, B.

    AU - Ammann, C.

    AU - Bernhofer, C.

    AU - Dellwik, Ebba

    AU - Gianelle, D.

    AU - Gielen, B.

    AU - Grünwald, T.

    AU - Klumpp, K.

    AU - Montagnani, L.

    AU - Moureaux, C.

    AU - Sottocomola, C.

    AU - Wohlfahrt, M.

    PY - 2010

    Y1 - 2010

    N2 - Recent European heatwaves have raised interest in the impact of land cover conditions on temperature extremes. At present, it is believed that such extremes are enhanced by stronger surface heating of the atmosphere, when soil moisture content is below average. However, the impact of land cover on the exchange of water and energy and the interaction of this exchange with the soil water balance during heatwaves is largely unknown. Here we analyse observations from an extensive network of flux towers in Europe that reveal a difference between the temporal responses of forest and grassland ecosystems during heatwaves. We find that initially, surface heating is twice as high over forest than over grassland. Over grass, heating is suppressed by increased evaporation in response to increased solar radiation and temperature. Ultimately, however, this process accelerates soil moisture depletion and induces a critical shift in the regional climate system that leads to increased heating. We propose that this mechanism may explain the extreme temperatures in August 2003. We conclude that the conservative water use of forest contributes to increased temperatures in the short term, but mitigates the impact of the most extreme heat and/or long-lasting events.

    AB - Recent European heatwaves have raised interest in the impact of land cover conditions on temperature extremes. At present, it is believed that such extremes are enhanced by stronger surface heating of the atmosphere, when soil moisture content is below average. However, the impact of land cover on the exchange of water and energy and the interaction of this exchange with the soil water balance during heatwaves is largely unknown. Here we analyse observations from an extensive network of flux towers in Europe that reveal a difference between the temporal responses of forest and grassland ecosystems during heatwaves. We find that initially, surface heating is twice as high over forest than over grassland. Over grass, heating is suppressed by increased evaporation in response to increased solar radiation and temperature. Ultimately, however, this process accelerates soil moisture depletion and induces a critical shift in the regional climate system that leads to increased heating. We propose that this mechanism may explain the extreme temperatures in August 2003. We conclude that the conservative water use of forest contributes to increased temperatures in the short term, but mitigates the impact of the most extreme heat and/or long-lasting events.

    KW - Wind power meteorology

    KW - Vindenergi

    KW - Wind Energy

    KW - Vindkraftmeteorologi

    U2 - 10.1038/ngeo950

    DO - 10.1038/ngeo950

    M3 - Journal article

    VL - 30

    SP - 722

    EP - 727

    JO - Nature Geoscience

    JF - Nature Geoscience

    SN - 1752-0894

    IS - 10

    ER -

    Teuling AJ, Seneviratne SI, Stöckli R, Reichstein M, Moors E, Ciais P et al. Contrasting response of European forest and grassland energy exchange to heatwaves. Nature Geoscience. 2010;30(10):722-727. https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo950