Conjugated polymers as actuators: modes of actuation

Steen Skaarup (Invited author)

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingArticle in proceedingsResearchpeer-review


The physical and chemical properties of conjugated polymers often depend very strongly on the degree of doping with anions or cations. The movement of ions in and out of the polymer matrix as it is redox cycled is also accompanied by mechanical changes. Both the volume and the stiffness can exhibit significant differences between the oxidized and reduced states. These effects form the basis of the use of conjugated polymers as actuators (or “artificial muscles”) controllable by a small (1-10 V) voltage. Three basic modes of actuation (bending, linear extension and stiffness change) have been proposed. This work discusses their relative merits and possible areas of application.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationElectroactive Polymers: Materials and Devices
EditorsN. Khare, S.A. Hashmi, Amita Chandra, Amreesh Chandra
Place of PublicationNew Delhi
PublisherAllied Publishers
Publication date2007
ISBN (Print)81-8424-149-6
Publication statusPublished - 2007
EventInternational Conference on Electroactive Polymers: Materials and Devices - Dalhousie, India
Duration: 1 Nov 20045 Nov 2004


ConferenceInternational Conference on Electroactive Polymers


  • Actuation Modes
  • Actuators
  • Electroactive Polymers
  • Artificial Muscles


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