### Abstract

Original language | English |
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Publication date | 2011 |

Number of pages | 6 |

Publication status | Published - 2011 |

Event | 11th International Congress on Engineering and Food - Athens, Greece Duration: 22 May 2011 → 26 May 2011 Conference number: 11 http://www.icef11.org/main.php |

### Conference

Conference | 11th International Congress on Engineering and Food |
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Number | 11 |

Country | Greece |

City | Athens |

Period | 22/05/2011 → 26/05/2011 |

Internet address |

### Keywords

- Cooling
- Finite element method
- Irregular geometry
- Heat transfer
- Modelling

### Cite this

*Computer aided simulation for developing a simple model to predict cooling of packaged foods*. Paper presented at 11th International Congress on Engineering and Food, Athens, Greece.

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**Computer aided simulation for developing a simple model to predict cooling of packaged foods.** / Christensen, Martin Gram; Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Adler-Nissen, Jens.

Research output: Contribution to conference › Paper › Research › peer-review

TY - CONF

T1 - Computer aided simulation for developing a simple model to predict cooling of packaged foods

AU - Christensen, Martin Gram

AU - Feyissa, Aberham Hailu

AU - Adler-Nissen, Jens

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - A new equation to predict equilibrium temperatures for cooling operations of packaged foods has been deducted from the traditional 1st order solution to Fourier’s heat transfer equations. The equation is analytical in form and only requires measurable parameters, in form of area vs. volume ratio (A/V), thermo-physical properties calculated from the recipe, and the heat transfer coefficients measured in the equipment. The equation is based on an overall Biot number. The simple deducted model was tested and validated with experimental and simulated setups. Simulations have been performed using COMSOL Multiphysics, commercially available software, to test the new equation. Additionally, an experiment with all boundary conditions known, and the three dimensional coordinates of the position of six thermocouples were conducted. The COMSOL simulation showed very good conformity with experimental results matching all individual thermocouples. Simulations are used as a validation tool for cooling predictions. This was done by comparing the simulated equilibrium temperature with the calculated using the new equation. The simulations are able to evaluate cooling situations in the industry where experiments are too laborious or impossible to conduct. The deducted equation was tested for irregular geometries, unequal heat transfer and headspace restrictions. The new equation predicted equilibrium temperature curves of the simulated cooling with a low error (1.5°C for Fourier numbers below 0.3) and good precision at the target temperature (error below 0.5°C for Fourier numbers above 0.3).

AB - A new equation to predict equilibrium temperatures for cooling operations of packaged foods has been deducted from the traditional 1st order solution to Fourier’s heat transfer equations. The equation is analytical in form and only requires measurable parameters, in form of area vs. volume ratio (A/V), thermo-physical properties calculated from the recipe, and the heat transfer coefficients measured in the equipment. The equation is based on an overall Biot number. The simple deducted model was tested and validated with experimental and simulated setups. Simulations have been performed using COMSOL Multiphysics, commercially available software, to test the new equation. Additionally, an experiment with all boundary conditions known, and the three dimensional coordinates of the position of six thermocouples were conducted. The COMSOL simulation showed very good conformity with experimental results matching all individual thermocouples. Simulations are used as a validation tool for cooling predictions. This was done by comparing the simulated equilibrium temperature with the calculated using the new equation. The simulations are able to evaluate cooling situations in the industry where experiments are too laborious or impossible to conduct. The deducted equation was tested for irregular geometries, unequal heat transfer and headspace restrictions. The new equation predicted equilibrium temperature curves of the simulated cooling with a low error (1.5°C for Fourier numbers below 0.3) and good precision at the target temperature (error below 0.5°C for Fourier numbers above 0.3).

KW - Cooling

KW - Finite element method

KW - Irregular geometry

KW - Heat transfer

KW - Modelling

M3 - Paper

ER -