To date, there are multiple assays developed that detect and quantify antibodies in biofluids. Nevertheless, there is still a lack of simple approaches that specifically detect autoimmune antibodies to double-stranded DNA. Herein we investigate the potential of novel nucleic acid complexes as targets for these antibodies. This is done in a simple, rapid and specific immunofluorescence assay. Specifically, employing 3D nanostructures (DNA origami), we present a new approach in the detection and study of human antibodies to DNA. We demonstrate the detection of anti-DNA antibodies that are characteristic of systemic lupus erythematosus, a chronic autoimmune disease with multiple manifestations. We tested the most potent non-covalent pairs of DNA and fluorescent dyes. Several complexes showed specific recognition of autoimmune antibodies in human samples of lupus patients using a simple one-step immunofluorescence method. This makes the novel assay developed herein a promising tool for research and point-of-care monitoring of anti-DNA antibodies. Using this method, we for the first time experimentally confirm that the disease-specific autoimmune antibodies are sensitive to the 3D structure of nucleic acids and not only to the nucleotide sequence, as was previously thought.