Comparison of processing-induced deformations of InP bonded to Si determined by e-beam metrology

Direct vs. adhesive bonding

Aurimas Sakanas*, Elizaveta Semenova, Luisa Ottaviano, Jesper Mørk, Kresten Yvind

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

In this paper, we employ an electron beam writer as metrology tool to investigate distortion of an exposed pattern of alignment marks in heterogeneously bonded InP on silicon. After experimental study of three different bonding and processing configurations which represent typical on-chip photonic device fabrication conditions, the smallest degree of linearly-corrected distortion errors is obtained for the directly bonded wafer, with the alignment marks both formed and measured on the same InP layer side after bonding (equivalent to single-sided processing of the bonded layer). Under these conditions, multilayer exposure alignment accuracy is limited by the InP layer deformation after the initial pattern exposure mainly due to the mechanical wafer clamping in the e-beam cassette. Bonding-induced InP layer deformations dominate in cases of direct and BCB bonding when the alignment marks are formed on one InP wafer side, and measured after bonding and substrate removal from another (equivalent to double-sided processing of the bonded layer). The findings of this paper provide valuable insight into the origin of the multilayer exposure misalignment errors for the bonded III-V on Si wafers, and identify important measures that need to be taken to optimize the fabrication procedures for demonstration of efficient and high-performance on-chip photonic integrated devices.

Original languageEnglish
JournalMicroelectronic Engineering
Volume214
Pages (from-to)93-99
ISSN0167-9317
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2019

Keywords

  • Alignment
  • Electron beam lithography
  • III-V on Si
  • Metrology
  • Wafer bonding

Cite this

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title = "Comparison of processing-induced deformations of InP bonded to Si determined by e-beam metrology: Direct vs. adhesive bonding",
abstract = "In this paper, we employ an electron beam writer as metrology tool to investigate distortion of an exposed pattern of alignment marks in heterogeneously bonded InP on silicon. After experimental study of three different bonding and processing configurations which represent typical on-chip photonic device fabrication conditions, the smallest degree of linearly-corrected distortion errors is obtained for the directly bonded wafer, with the alignment marks both formed and measured on the same InP layer side after bonding (equivalent to single-sided processing of the bonded layer). Under these conditions, multilayer exposure alignment accuracy is limited by the InP layer deformation after the initial pattern exposure mainly due to the mechanical wafer clamping in the e-beam cassette. Bonding-induced InP layer deformations dominate in cases of direct and BCB bonding when the alignment marks are formed on one InP wafer side, and measured after bonding and substrate removal from another (equivalent to double-sided processing of the bonded layer). The findings of this paper provide valuable insight into the origin of the multilayer exposure misalignment errors for the bonded III-V on Si wafers, and identify important measures that need to be taken to optimize the fabrication procedures for demonstration of efficient and high-performance on-chip photonic integrated devices.",
keywords = "Alignment, Electron beam lithography, III-V on Si, Metrology, Wafer bonding",
author = "Aurimas Sakanas and Elizaveta Semenova and Luisa Ottaviano and Jesper M{\o}rk and Kresten Yvind",
year = "2019",
month = "6",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.mee.2019.05.001",
language = "English",
volume = "214",
pages = "93--99",
journal = "Microelectronic Engineering",
issn = "0167-9317",
publisher = "Elsevier",

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Comparison of processing-induced deformations of InP bonded to Si determined by e-beam metrology : Direct vs. adhesive bonding. / Sakanas, Aurimas; Semenova, Elizaveta; Ottaviano, Luisa; Mørk, Jesper; Yvind, Kresten.

In: Microelectronic Engineering, Vol. 214, 01.06.2019, p. 93-99.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Comparison of processing-induced deformations of InP bonded to Si determined by e-beam metrology

T2 - Direct vs. adhesive bonding

AU - Sakanas, Aurimas

AU - Semenova, Elizaveta

AU - Ottaviano, Luisa

AU - Mørk, Jesper

AU - Yvind, Kresten

PY - 2019/6/1

Y1 - 2019/6/1

N2 - In this paper, we employ an electron beam writer as metrology tool to investigate distortion of an exposed pattern of alignment marks in heterogeneously bonded InP on silicon. After experimental study of three different bonding and processing configurations which represent typical on-chip photonic device fabrication conditions, the smallest degree of linearly-corrected distortion errors is obtained for the directly bonded wafer, with the alignment marks both formed and measured on the same InP layer side after bonding (equivalent to single-sided processing of the bonded layer). Under these conditions, multilayer exposure alignment accuracy is limited by the InP layer deformation after the initial pattern exposure mainly due to the mechanical wafer clamping in the e-beam cassette. Bonding-induced InP layer deformations dominate in cases of direct and BCB bonding when the alignment marks are formed on one InP wafer side, and measured after bonding and substrate removal from another (equivalent to double-sided processing of the bonded layer). The findings of this paper provide valuable insight into the origin of the multilayer exposure misalignment errors for the bonded III-V on Si wafers, and identify important measures that need to be taken to optimize the fabrication procedures for demonstration of efficient and high-performance on-chip photonic integrated devices.

AB - In this paper, we employ an electron beam writer as metrology tool to investigate distortion of an exposed pattern of alignment marks in heterogeneously bonded InP on silicon. After experimental study of three different bonding and processing configurations which represent typical on-chip photonic device fabrication conditions, the smallest degree of linearly-corrected distortion errors is obtained for the directly bonded wafer, with the alignment marks both formed and measured on the same InP layer side after bonding (equivalent to single-sided processing of the bonded layer). Under these conditions, multilayer exposure alignment accuracy is limited by the InP layer deformation after the initial pattern exposure mainly due to the mechanical wafer clamping in the e-beam cassette. Bonding-induced InP layer deformations dominate in cases of direct and BCB bonding when the alignment marks are formed on one InP wafer side, and measured after bonding and substrate removal from another (equivalent to double-sided processing of the bonded layer). The findings of this paper provide valuable insight into the origin of the multilayer exposure misalignment errors for the bonded III-V on Si wafers, and identify important measures that need to be taken to optimize the fabrication procedures for demonstration of efficient and high-performance on-chip photonic integrated devices.

KW - Alignment

KW - Electron beam lithography

KW - III-V on Si

KW - Metrology

KW - Wafer bonding

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DO - 10.1016/j.mee.2019.05.001

M3 - Journal article

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SP - 93

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JO - Microelectronic Engineering

JF - Microelectronic Engineering

SN - 0167-9317

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