Comparison of processing-induced deformations of InP bonded to Si determined by e-beam metrology: Direct vs. adhesive bonding

Aurimas Sakanas*, Elizaveta Semenova, Luisa Ottaviano, Jesper Mørk, Kresten Yvind

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


In this paper, we employ an electron beam writer as metrology tool to investigate distortion of an exposed pattern of alignment marks in heterogeneously bonded InP on silicon. After experimental study of three different bonding and processing configurations which represent typical on-chip photonic device fabrication conditions, the smallest degree of linearly-corrected distortion errors is obtained for the directly bonded wafer, with the alignment marks both formed and measured on the same InP layer side after bonding (equivalent to single-sided processing of the bonded layer). Under these conditions, multilayer exposure alignment accuracy is limited by the InP layer deformation after the initial pattern exposure mainly due to the mechanical wafer clamping in the e-beam cassette. Bonding-induced InP layer deformations dominate in cases of direct and BCB bonding when the alignment marks are formed on one InP wafer side, and measured after bonding and substrate removal from another (equivalent to double-sided processing of the bonded layer). The findings of this paper provide valuable insight into the origin of the multilayer exposure misalignment errors for the bonded III-V on Si wafers, and identify important measures that need to be taken to optimize the fabrication procedures for demonstration of efficient and high-performance on-chip photonic integrated devices.

Original languageEnglish
JournalMicroelectronic Engineering
Pages (from-to)93-99
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2019


  • Alignment
  • Electron beam lithography
  • III-V on Si
  • Metrology
  • Wafer bonding

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