Comparison of phosphodiesterase type V inhibitors use in eight European cities through analysis of urban wastewater

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article – Annual report year: 2018Researchpeer-review

  • Author: Causanilles Llanes, Ana

    KWR Water Cycle Research Institute

  • Author: Rojas Cantillano, Daniela

    National University of Costa Rica

  • Author: Emke, Erik

    KWR Water Cycle Research Institute

  • Author: Bade, Richard

    Jaume I University

  • Author: Baz-Lomba, Jose Antonio

    Norwegian Institute for Water Research

  • Author: Castiglioni, Sara

    IRCCS Istituto di ricerche farmacologiche Mario Negri - Milano, Bergamo, Ranica

  • Author: Castrignanò, Erika

    University of Bath

  • Author: Gracia-Lor, Emma

    Jaume I University

  • Author: Hernández, Félix

    Jaume I University

  • Author: Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    University of Bath

  • Author: Kinyua, Juliet

    University of Antwerp

  • Author: McCall, Ann-Kathrin

    Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology

  • Author: van Nuijs, Alexander L. N.

    University of Antwerp

  • Author: Plósz, Benedek G.

    Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark

  • Author: Ramin, Pedram

    Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark

  • Author: Rousis, Nikolaos I.

    IRCCS Istituto di ricerche farmacologiche Mario Negri - Milano, Bergamo, Ranica

  • Author: Ryu, Yeonsuk

    Norwegian Institute for Water Research

  • Author: Thomas, Kevin V.

    Norwegian Institute for Water Research

  • Author: de Voogt, Pim

    KWR Water Cycle Research Institute

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In this work a step forward in investigating the use of prescription drugs, namely erectile dysfunction products, at European level was taken by applying the wastewater-based epidemiology approach. 24-h composite samples of untreated wastewater were collected at the entrance of eight wastewater treatment plants serving the catchment within the cities of Bristol, Brussels, Castellón, Copenhagen, Milan, Oslo, Utrecht and Zurich. A validated analytical procedure with direct injection of filtered aliquots by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was applied. The target list included the three active pharmaceutical ingredients (sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil) together with (bio)transformation products and other analogues. Only sildenafil and its two human urinary metabolites desmethyl- and desethylsildenafil were detected in the samples with concentrations reaching 60 ng L−1. The concentrations were transformed into normalized measured loads and the estimated actual consumption of sildenafil was back-calculated from these loads. In addition, national prescription data from five countries was gathered in the form of the number of prescribed daily doses and transformed into predicted loads for comparison. This comparison resulted in the evidence of a different spatial trend across Europe. In Utrecht and Brussels, prescription data could only partly explain the total amount found in wastewater; whereas in Bristol, the comparison was in agreement; and in Milan and Oslo a lower amount was found in wastewater than expected from the prescription data. This study illustrates the potential of wastewater-based epidemiology to investigate the use of counterfeit medication and rogue online pharmacy sales.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEnvironment International
Volume115
Pages (from-to)279-284
Number of pages6
ISSN0160-4120
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018
CitationsWeb of Science® Times Cited: No match on DOI

    Research areas

  • Consumption, Counterfeit, Erectile dysfunction, LC-MS/MS, Prescription drugs, Wastewater-based epidemiology

ID: 146140133