Comparison of Low-temperature District Heating Concepts in a Long-Term Energy System Perspective

Rasmus Søgaard Lund, Dorte Skaarup Østergaard, Xiaochen Yang, Brian Vad Mathiesen

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District heating (DH) systems are important components in an energy efficient heat supply. With increasing amounts of renewable energy, the foundation for DH is changing and the approach to its planning will have to change. Reduced temperatures of DH are proposed as a solution to adapt it to future renewable energy systems. This study compares three alternative concepts for DH temperature level: Low temperature (55/25 °C), Ultra-low temperature with electric boosting (45/25 °C), and Ultra-low temperature with heat pump boosting (35/20 °C) taking into account the grid losses, production efficiencies and building requirements. The scenarios are modelled and analysed in the analysis tool EnergyPLAN and compared on primary energy supply and socioeconomic costs. The results show that the low temperature solution (55/25°C) has the lowest costs, reducing the total costs by about 100 M€/year in 2050.
Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management
Pages (from-to)5-18
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Energy system analysis
  • Socioeconomic costs
  • Fuel consumption
  • Energy efficiency
  • EnergyPLAN simulations

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