Comparing Offshore Ferry Lidar Measurements in the Southern Baltic Sea with ASCAT, FINO2 and WRF

Daniel Hatfield*, Charlotte Bay Hasager, Ioanna Karagali

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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This article highlights the inter-comparisons of the wind measurement techniques available in deep water areas working towards combining them to obtain optimal estimates of the wind power potential. More specifically, this article presents comparisons of the Ferry Lidar Experiment wind data with those of the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT), the FINO2 meteorological mast, and the New European Wind Atlas (NEWA) simulations performed using the Weather Research, and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model. To be comparable to ASCAT surface winds, which are referenced at 10 m, the ferry lidar and FINO2 wind profile measurements were extrapolated down to 10 m using atmospheric stability information derived from the bulk Richardson number formulation. ASCAT had the lowest associated error compared with that of the ferry lidar in near-neutral atmospheric stratifications, whereas FINO2, despite a distance range of 30 km and a moving ferry lidar target, had the highest correlation and lowest RMSE in all atmospheric conditions. Due to the high frequency of low-level jets caused by the proximity to land from all directions as well as typically stable atmospheric conditions, the extrapolated ferry lidar measurements underpredicted the ASCAT 10 m wind speeds. WRF consistently underperformed compared to the other measurement methods, even with the ability to directly compare results with all other sources at all heights.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1427
JournalRemote Sensing
Issue number6
Number of pages17
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Offshore wind energy
  • Satellite winds
  • Wind lidar
  • Ferry lidar
  • WRF
  • FINO2
  • NEWA


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